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Role of Leptin in the Activation of the Immune System pp. 71-88 $100.00
Authors:  (Patricia Fernández-Riejos, Souad Najib, José Santos-Alvarez, Consuelo Martín-Romero, Antonio Pérez-Pérez, Carmen González-Yanes, Víctor Sánchez-Margalet, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, University of Seville, Spain)
Abstract:
Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes various humoral factors (adipokines), and its shift to production of proinflammatory cytokines in obesity likely contributes to the low-level systemic inflammation that may be present in metabolic syndrome-associated chronic pathologies such as atherosclerosis. Leptin is one of the most important hormones secreted by the adipocyte, with a variety of physiological roles related with the control of metabolism and energy homeostasis. One of these functions is the connection between nutritional status and immune competence. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin has been shown to regulate the immune response, innate and adaptative response, both in normal as well as in pathological conditions. The role of leptin in regulating immune response has been assessed in vitro as well as in clinical studies. It has been shown that conditions of reduced leptin production are associated with increased infection susceptibility. On the other hand, leptin can promote autoreactivity. As a pro-inflammatory adipokine, it can induce T helper 1 cells and may contribute to the development and progression of autoimmune responses. A number of studies have implicated a role of leptin in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. This aspect is also of interest in relation to the well-known gender bias in susceptibility to autoimmunity. Autoimmune diseases are frequently more prevalentin females, and females are relatively hyperleptinemic. The modulation of circulating leptin levels has a pivotal role on some inflammatory and autoimmune conditions. 


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Role of Leptin in the Activation of the Immune System pp. 71-88