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Human CD8 Tregs as Contenders in Chronic Persisting Infections, pp. 33-56 $100.00
Authors:  (Simone A. Joosten, Tom H. M. Ottenhoff, Department of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands)
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are key regulators of the immune system, however their role in infectious diseases remains rather controversial. Chronic persistent infections in humans such as parasites, viruses and (myco)bacteria all can result in the induction of both CD4+ and CD8+ Tregs. In these chronic persistent infections, Tregs may dampen inflammation to limit tissue damage, but they may also inhibit ensuing effector immunity, thereby impairing pathogen clearance. All of these may depend on timing and location of Treg responses, early during infections Tregs may be essential balancing the trafficking of effector cells between the sites of immune induction and infection whereas in later stages Tregs may hamper pathogen clearance. A remarkably increased frequency of Tregs has been observed at the site of infection, suggesting active local involvement. The vast majority of studies has focused on the role of (various subsets of) CD4+ Treg cells. However, CD8+ Treg cells play a prominent role as well, but surprisingly little is known about these cells, particularly in humans. The antigen specificity of such CD8+ Tregs has been demonstrated for several pathogens and the genetic restriction of the T-cell responses can comprise classical as well as non-classical HLA class I family members. Here we review and discuss human CD8+ Tregs and CD8+ Treg subsets, with particular emphasis on their properties, effector mechanisms and their role in chronic, persistent infectious diseases. 

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Human CD8 Tregs as Contenders in Chronic Persisting Infections, pp. 33-56