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Female Hepatology: Favorable Role of Female Factors in Chronic Liver Disease
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Authors: Ichiro Shimizu (University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan) 
Book Description:
Sex does matter. One of the most compelling reasons for understanding the biological differences, which are not so explained at this time, is that there are striking differences in human disease. The most obvious and best-studied differences between the sexes are in the reproductive systems. Much less study has been done on sex differences in non-reproductive areas of biology. Liver cancer is undoubtedly predominant in men and postmenopausal women. Almost anyone may “feel,” but not recognize the sex-associated difference in liver cancer as a fact. How does sex matter in the incidence of liver cancer?
After considering the data and examples presented in this book, anyone will be provided unique opportunities to obtain a better understanding of differences of chronic liver disease between the sexes. Some of these differences can be explained by what we now know. Some are unexplained and point to important questions for future study. Being female or male is an important basic human variable that affects health and liver disease throughout the life span. A better understanding the biological mechanisms underlying the sex-associated differences in chronic liver disease would provide valuable information to design care of health and liver disease more effectively for individuals, both females and males.

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Table of Contents:
Preface

Chapter 1: Liver cancer is predominant in men and postmenopausal women
1. Worldwide incidence and sex ratios of liver cancer
2. Liver cancer incidence in different ethnic groups and immigrant populations
3. Increase of HCC incidence rates among females aged over 50 years
4. Majority of HCC cases have underlying cirrhosis

Chapter 2: Chronic hepatitis C and B progress more slowly in females than males
1. HCV and HBV infections in the world
2. Clinical remission or slow progression in females with HBV infection
3. Slow progression from chronic hepatitis C to cirrhosis in females
4. Interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C in females

Chapter 3: Hepatic fibrosis and oxidative stress
1. Oxidative stress in liver injury
2. What is hepatic fibrosis?
3. Activation of hepatic stellate cells
4. Capillarization of sinusoids
5. Hepatic fibrosis and oxidative stress

Chapter 4: Female sex hormones in hepatic fibrosis
1. Female sex hormones estradiol and progesterone
2. Opposing effects of estradiol and progesterone on HSC activation
3. Estrogen receptor subtypes have different biological functions
4. Estradiol functions as a potent antioxidant through estrogen receptor
5. Estradiol inhibits apoptosis in hepatocytes
6. Estradiol inhibits hepatic fibrosis
7. Estrogens are vasoregulators in sinusoid
8. “Mona Lisa Smile”

Chapter 5: Ms, you can never become an “Iron Lady”
1. Liver plays a major role in iron homeostasis in the body
2. Females and low iron stores in the liver
3. Hepatic iron overload

Chapter 6: Immune response is affected by estrogens, progesterone and testosterone
1. Biosynthesis of estrogens, progesterone and androgens
2. Innate immune response and adaptive immune system
3. Innate immune response and sex hormones
4. Adaptive immune response and sex hormones

Chapter 7: Females and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
1. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in females
2. Metabolic syndrome in females
3. Hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress
4. Adipokines in female
5. Hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis B and C
6. Estradiol inhibits hepatic steatosis
7. Obesity and HCC

Chapter 8: “Female paradox” in alcoholic liver disease
1. Alcoholic liver disease in females
2. Alcoholic liver injury and oxidative stress
3. Endotoxin in alcoholic liver injury
4. Sex difference of ADH and CYP2E1 via growth hormone and estrogens
5. Heavy alcohol intake and HCC

Chapter 9: Autoimmune liver diseases in females
1. Female-to-male ratios associated with common autoimmune diseases
2. Autoimmune hepatitis
3. Primary biliary cirrhosis

Chapter 10: Are estrogens useful as a therapeutic drug for chronic liver disease?
1. Hepatic carcinogenesis in females
2. Oral contraceptive use and benign liver tumor
3. High-dose OCs and HCC
4. Hormonal replacement therapy in chronic liver disease
5. Tamoxifen in treatment of HCC
6. Are estrogens useful as a therapeutic drug for chronic liver disease?
7. Function of phytoestrogens through estrogen receptor â

Chapter 11: Sex and gender specific medicine in chronic liver disease
1. Chronic hepatitis C
2. Dietary antioxidants and liver health
3. Obesity, drinking, and smoking in HCC
4. Early diagnosis of HCC
References

Index

   Series:
      Hepatology Research and Clinical Developments
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2009
   Pages: 233 pp.
   ISBN: 978-1-60741-692-0
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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Female Hepatology: Favorable Role of Female Factors in Chronic Liver Disease