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Computation Checkpointing and Migration
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Authors: Vipin Chaudhary, Amherst, NY; Hai Jiang, Arkansas State University; John Paul N. Walters, Detroit, MI 
Book Description:
Computational clusters have long provided a mechanism for the acceleration of high performance computing (HPC) applications. With today’s supercomputers now exceeding the petaflop scale, however, they are also exhibiting an increase in heterogeneity. This
heterogeneity spans a range of technologies, from multiple operating systems to hardware accelerators and novel architectures. Because of the exceptional acceleration some of these heterogeneous architectures provide, they are being embraced as viable tools for HPC applications. Given the scale of today’s supercomputers, it is clear that scientists must consider the use of fault-tolerance in their applications. This is particularly true as computational clusters with hundreds and thousands of processors become ubiquitous in large-scale scientific computing, leading to lower mean-times-to-failure. This forces the systems to effectively deal with the possibility of arbitrary and unexpected node failure. In this book the address the issue of fault-tolerance via checkpointing. They discuss the existing strategies to provide rollback recovery to applications – both via MPI at the user level and through application-level techniques. Checkpointing itself has been studied extensively in the literature, including the authors’ own works. Here they give a general overview of checkpointing and how it’s implemented. More importantly, they describe strategies to improve the performance of checkpointing, particularly in the case of distributed systems.

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Table of Contents:
Chapter 1. Introduction, pp. 1-7
1.1 Introduction to Checkpointing
1.2 Background on Checkpointing
1.2.1. LAM/MPI
1.2.2. Checkpointing Distributed Systems
1.2.3. Distributed State and Consistency

Chapter 2. Application-level Checkpointing/Migration, pp. 9-38
2.1 Thread Migration
2.2 Adaptive DSM Systems
2.2.1. Background
2.2.2. Strings
2.2.3. Thread Scheduling
2.2.4. DSM Migration Policy
2.2.5. Adaptation Points

2.3 Thread States

2.4 Compile-time Support
2.4.1. Function Call Graph
2.4.2. Data Variables
2.4.3. Pointers
2.4.4. Function Parameters
2.4.5. Program Counter
2.4.6. Adaptation Positions
2.4.7. Preprocessor

2.5 Run-time Support
2.5.1. Stacks
2.5.2. Memory Segments in Heaps
2.5.3. Thread State Transfer
2.5.4. State Restoration and Pointer Translation

2.6 Performance Analysis
2.7 Microbenchmarks
2.8 Experimental Results
2.9 Summary

Chapter 3. Migration Safety
3.1 Checkpointing/Migration-Unsafe Factors
3.1.1. Pointer Casting
3.1.2. Pointers in Unions
3.1.3. Library Calls
3.1.4. State-Carrying Instructions
3.1.5. Incompatible Data Conversion

3.2 Pointer Representations in C, pp. 39-60
3.2.1. Data Types in C
3.2.2. Data Updating Operations
3.2.3. Pointer Casting

3.3 Pointer Inference
3.3.1. Pointer Inference Rules
3.3.2. Static Analysis
3.3.3. Dynamic Check
3.3.4. Complexity

3.4 Microbenchmarks
3.5 Experimental Results
3.6 Related Research
3.7 Summary

Chapter 4. Heterogeneity Support, pp. 61-92
4.1 Data Representations in Heterogeneous Environments
4.1.1. Tags
4.1.2. Canonical Intermediate Form
4.1.3. Receiver-Makes-Right (RMR)

4.2 Data Conversion Issues
4.2.1. Endianness
4.2.2. Character Sets
4.2.3. Floating Point Standards
4.2.4. Data Alignment and Padding
4.2.5. Loss of Precision
4.2.6. Pointers

4.3 Coarse-grained Tagged RMR in MigThread
4.3.1. Tagging and Padding Detection
4.3.2. Data Restoration
4.3.3. Data Resizing
4.3.4. Address Resizing
4.3.5. Plug-and-Play

4.4 The Compile Time Support Module
4.5 The Run-time Support Module
4.6 Complexity Analysis
4.7 Microbenchmarks
4.8 Experimental Results
4.9 Related Research
4.10 Summary

Chapter 5. User-Level Checkpointing with LAM, pp. 93-106
5.1 User-Level Checkpoint/Fault Tolerance
5.2 User-Level LAM Checkpointing with Arbitrary Restart Structure
5.2.1. Existing Implementation
5.2.2. Enhancments to LAM's Checkpointing

5.3 Checkpoint Storage, Resilience, and Checkpointing
5.3.1. Dedicated Checkpoint Servers versus Checkpointing to Network Storage
5.3.2. Checkpoint Replication
5.3.3. The Degree of Replication
5.3.4. Restarting Computation
5.3.5. Scalability

Chapter 6. HPC and Virtualization, pp. 107-127
6.1 Virtualization within HPC
6.2 Virualization Background
6.2.1. Overview of Test Virtualization Implementation

6.3 Performance Results
6.3.1. Network Performance
6.3.2. File System Performance
6.3.3. Single Node Benchmarks
6.3.4. MPI Benchmarks

6.4 Fault Tolerant
6.5 Checkpointing/Restart System Design
6.5.1. System Startup
6.5.2. Checkpointing
6.5.3. Restarting
6.5.4. Data Resiliency to Node Failures

6.6 Checkpoint/Replication Analysis
6.7 Performance Results
6.7.1. Replication Overhead

References
Index

   Series:
      Embedded and High Performance Computing (Laurence Tianruo Yang)
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2010
   ISBN: 978-1-60741-840-5
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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