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Values, Expectations, Ad Hoc Rules, and Culture Emergence in International Cross-Cultural Management Contexts
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Authors: Xibao Zhang (Dept. of International Economics and Trade, Qingdao Univ., Qingdao, China) 
Book Description:
Is culture fixed and immutable, or is it emergent and changing? This is a question that has taken on growing importance in light of the culturally diverse and dynamic workplace realities that have resulted from increasing globalization. It is also a topic that is in hot debate in international cross-cultural management (ICCM) research, in management and organization studies in general, and in other disciplines. This book moves beyond the conventional dichotomous thinking of viewing culture either as fixed and immutable or dynamic and “in the making”, and aims to develop a conceptualization of culture that includes both a stable and a changing element.
This book is based on empirical research on culture emergence in Sino-Western international cross-cultural management (SW-ICCM) contexts in China. Data have been collected by semi-structured interviews of Chinese and Western expatriates working in SW-ICCM contexts in China. Data analysis has led to the formulation of a grounded theory that views culture as comprising three cognitive components, Values, Expectations, and Ad Hoc Rules, which differ in time-space in their mutual shaping with behavior, ranging from the enduring/universal, to the intermediate/context-specific, to the temporal/occasion-specific.

Table of Contents:
PROLOGUE

LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF CHINESE TERMS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION;pp. 1-10
1.1 BACKGROUND
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1.4 SCOPE
1.5 RATIONALE
1.5.1 The Trend of Globalization
1.5.2 The Need for a New Conceptualization of Culture
1.5.3 The Need for Conducting Culture Research in the Chinese Context
1.6 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND METHOD
1.6.1 Research Methodology
1.6.2 Research Method
1.7 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW: THE CONCEPTUALIZATION OF CULTURE;pp. 11-31
2.1 TRADITIONAL CONCEPTUALIZATIONS
2.1.1 The Concept of Culture
2.1.2 Early Scientific Definitions
2.2 VALUES-CENTERED DEFINITIONS OF CULTURE IN EARLY MANAGEMENT LITERATURE
2.2.1 The Centrality of Values
2.2.2 Other Elements of Culture
2.2.3 Level of Analysis
2.3 CULTURE IN INTERNATIONAL CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH
2.3.1 The Cross-National Comparison Stream
2.3.2 The Intercultural Interaction Stream
2.3.3 The Multiple Cultures Stream
2.4 THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN CONCEPTUALIZATIONS OF CULTURE
2.4.1 Anthropology
2.4.2 Sociology
2.5 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 3 TOWARDS A DIALECTIC CONCEPTUALIZATION OF CULTURE;pp. 33-50
3.1 RECENT DYNAMICS- AND PROCESS-ORIENTED CONCEPTUALIZATIONS
3.1.1 The Ecocultural Framework
3.1.2 The Cultural Evolution Theory of the Firm
3.1.3 The Dynamic Multi-Level Model of Culture
3.2 ANCIENT CHINESE PHILOSOPHY
3.2.1 Overview of Ancient Chinese Philosophy
3.2.2 Key Principles of Ancient Chinese Philosophy
3.2.3 Applications of Chinese Philosophy to Management Research
3.3 TOWARDS A DIALECTIC CONCEPTUALIZATION OF CULTURE
3.3.1 Three Fundamental Premises
3.3.2 Culture as a Dialectic Process of Interaction and Mutual Transformation
3.3.3 Theoretical and Methodological Implications
3.4 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND METHOD;pp. 51-85
4.1 THE OVERALL METHODOLOGICAL ORIENTATION OF THIS STUDY
4.1.1 Cross Cultural Research Issues
4.1.2 The Methodological Implications of the Dialectic Processual Perspective on Culture
4.1.3 Characterizing the Research Methodology of This Study
4.2 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
4.2.1 The Main Questions
4.2.2 The Subsidiary Questions
4.3 THE CHOICE OF GROUNDED THEORY
4.3.1 The Fit of Grounded Theory as a Research Method for This Study
4.3.2 An Overview of Grounded Theory
4.3.3 The Roles of Literature and Personal Experience in Grounded Theory Research
4.4 DATA COLLECTION
4.4.1 Semi-Structured Interviews of Chinese and Expatriates
4.4.2 Non-Participant Observation in the SW-ICCM Workplace
4.4.3 Documentary Data Sources on SW-ICCM Contexts
4.5 SAMPLING
4.5.1 General Considerations of Sampling for Qualitative-Interpretivist Research
4.5.2 Purposeful Sampling and Theoretical Sampling
4.5.3 Factors Affecting Sample Size in Qualitative-Interpretivist Research
4.5.4 Sampling in This Study
4.5.5 Sample Size Considerations in This Study
4.6 DATA CODING, ANALYSIS, AND THEORY FORMULATION
4.6.1 Data Coding and Analysis
4.6.2 Theory Formulation and Presentation
4.7 CREDIBILITY AND RELATED ISSUES
4.7.1 Credibility Issues in Qualitative-Interpretivist Research
4.7.2 Credibility Issues in Grounded Theory Research
4.8 ETHICS CONSIDERATIONS
4.9 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 5 THEME I: PAY CONFIDENTIALITY;pp. 87-102
5.1 DIFFERENCES IN PAY CONFIDENTIALITY BETWEEN CHINA AND THE WEST
5.1.1 The Chinese Perspective
5.1.2 The Expatriate Perspective
5.2 THE PATTERN OF PAY CONFIDENTIALITY IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
5.2.1 A Hybrid, Split Pattern
5.2.2 The Influence of the Chinese Culture
5.2.3 Concern with Internal and External Equity
5.2.4 Awareness, Understanding, and Acceptance
5.3 EMERGENCE OF THE PATTERN OF PAY CONFIDENTIALITY IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
5.3.1 The Chinese Perspective
5.3.2 The Expatriate Perspective
5.4 A FRAMEWORK OF THE EMERGENCE OF THE PAY CONFIDENTIALITY PATTERN IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
5.4.1 Further Discussion on the Hybrid, Split Pattern
5.4.2 A Proposed Processual Framework
5.5 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 6 THEME II: KNOWLEDGE/INFORMATION SHARING;pp. 103-132
6.1 DIFFERENCES IN KNOWLEDGE/INFORMATION SHARING BETWEEN CHINA AND THE WEST
6.1.1 In-Groups and Private Knowledge/Information Sharing
6.1.2 Face-Saving and Private Knowledge/Information Sharing
6.2 THE PATTERN OF KNOWLEDGE/INFORMATION SHARING IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
6.2.1 Open Sharing and No In-Groups
6.2.2 Open Sharing and In-Groups Coexisting
6.2.3 The In-Between Cases
6.3 EMERGENCE OF THE KNOWLEDGE/INFORMATION SHARING PATTERN IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
6.3.1 Difference Awareness
6.3.2 Action Formulation
6.3.3 Informant Experiences
6.4 A FRAMEWORK OF THE EMERGENCE OF THE KNOWLEDGE/ INFORMATION SHARING PATTERN IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
6.4.1 A Static Representation
6.4.2 A Processual Representation
6.5 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 7 THEME III: STATUS DIFFERENTIATION;pp. 133-158
7.1 DIFFERENCES IN STATUS DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN CHINA AND THE WEST
7.1.1 The Chinese Perspective
7.1.2 The Expatriate Perspective
7.2 THE PATTERN OF STATUS DIFFERENTIATION IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
7.2.1 Superior-Subordinate Relationships
7.2.2 Peer Relationships
7.3 EMERGENCE OF THE STATUS DIFFERENTIATION PATTERN IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
7.3.1 The General Situation on Status Differentiation 193
7.3.2 Form of Address
7.4 A FRAMEWORK OF THE EMERGENCE OF THE STATUS DIFFERENTIATION PATTERN IN SW-ICCM CONTEXTS IN CHINA
7.4.1 A Static Representation
7.4.2 A Processual Representation
7.5 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 8 THE FORMAL THEORY;pp. 159-173
8.1 THE FORMAL THEORY
8.1.1 A Static Representation
8.1.2 A Processual Representation
8.2 FURTHER ELABORATIONS
8.2.1 Expectations and Ad Hoc Rules as "Shock Absorbers"
8.2.2 Culture as both Stable and Changing
8.2.3 The Boundary of Culture
8.3 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION;pp. 175-182
9.1 MAIN CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS STUDY
9.1.1 Recapitulation of the Formal Theory
9.1.2 Theoretical Contributions
9.1.3 Practical Implications
9.2 LIMITATIONS AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
9.2.1 Generalizability
9.2.2 The Need for Further Theoretical Refinement
9.3 CONCLUDING REMARKS

APPENDICES;pp. 183-189

REFERENCES
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INDEX

   Series:
      Focus on Civilizations and Cultures
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2009
   Pages: 7 x 10, 212 pp.
   ISBN: 978-1-60741-866-5
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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Values, Expectations, Ad Hoc Rules, and Culture Emergence in International Cross-Cultural Management Contexts