Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to have ability to differentiate into multiple mesodermal lineages such as adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes, as well as non-mesodermal linkages such as neural cells. Thus, MSCs are potentially very useful for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Human MSCs have been isolated from several tissue sources, including adipose tissues. Human adult adipose tissues are highly abundant and relatively easy to procure with low risk. This new book present current research in the study of mRNAs and microRNAs and their connection to mesenchymal stem cells.