This important book gives an interconnected presentation of some basic ideas, concepts, results of the theory of generalized functions (first of all, in the framework of the theory of distributions) and equations of mathematical physics. A part of the material is given according to the scheme: definition – theorem – proof. This scheme is convenient for presenting results in clear and concentrated form. However, it seems reasonable to give a student the possibility not only to study a priori given definitions and proofs of theorems, but also to discover them while considering the problems involved. A series of sections serve this purpose. Moreover, a part of the material is given as exercises and problems.