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Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 6
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Editors: Lowell T. Duncan
Book Description:
The different anticoagulant drugs used both in the treatment and prevention of deep venous thrombosis can cause several adverse effects. The most significant complication is bleeding. In Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 6, the authors begin by examining how to choose the most appropriate drug for decreasing the risk of bleeding, taking into account the characteristics of each of these drugs as well as those of the patient.
The authors go on to discuss infectious mononucleosis, also known as kissing disease, which is characterized by the classic triad of fever, pharyngitis, and cervical lymphadenopathy, where lymhocytosis and atypical lymphocytes are also present. The classic test for infectious mononucleosis is the demonstration of heterophile antibodies. Monospot test, a qualitative test using the latex agglutination technique, is the most widely used method to detect the serum heterophile antibodies of infectious mononucleosis.
Next, this collection presents the current knowledge on pro- and anticoagulation mechanisms in kidney diseases, as well as the authors’ experiences in the treatment of both conditions in different clinical subsets: glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and genetic renal diseases, in infectious diseases and illicit substance abuse with renal involvement and in some immunological inflammatory diseases with renal involvement.
Later, the authors propose that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a catechin found in green tea, can prevent vascular endothelial cell injury and dysfunction. EGCG has an antioxidant effect in vascular endothelial cells and induces nitric oxide (NO) production by promoting endothelial NO synthase expression. The effects of EGCG might help to prevent arteriosclerosis in its early stages. However, detailed mechanisms of the preventive action of EGCG and its molecular targets on endothelial dysfunction remain elusive. Thus, this review explores the results of studies that investigated the effects of EGCG from green tea on the prevention of vascular endothelial dysfunction during the early stages of arteriosclerosis.
This compilation also examines the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which has become a stumbling stone in the progress of human civilization. With congruence to whole world, Bangladesh has also been experiencing the epidemic since mid-1980. This collection provides a review regarding the prevalence of routine surveillance among the population considered “at risk” for HIV infection, as well as the national policy to prevent the HIV epidemic in Bangladesh.
In a subsequent review, the authors examine streptozotocin (STZ), a compound that was originally identified in the late 1950s as an antibiotic, and currently is widely used to induce experimental diabetes mellitus. Although STZ has been used in research, there has been no standardization of a well-established protocol. It’s important to highlight that STZ has non-specific toxicity, which can contribute to variability in its outcomes. This assessment aims to determine the influence of different protocols of induction of diabetes mellitus with STZ on the effectiveness of the method and possible side effects of this compound.
This book also analyzes 57 relevant papers on the issue of nerve palsy after total hip replacement, and aims to review the pathophysiological data, prevalence, etiology, risk factors, prognosis and prevention of this complication. Nerve palsy after total hip replacement is a rare complication (0.08% to 7.6%).
An especially relevant public health problem in South America and Africa is that of Yellow Fever (YF). A YF outbreak occurred in areas in close proximity to major urban centers of Brazil where YF vaccine was not routinely administered. In view of this, several YF mass vaccination campaigns were performed including these locations. Therefore, the authors review the pertinent information regarding the completion of the YF mass vaccination campaigns in 2017 and 2018 in Brazil. Future perspectives for this vaccination in the national territory are also discussed.
The authors present current, normative data on a new examination method of endothelial dysfunction (ED) in childhood. The reversibility of ED is an attractive primary target in the effort to decrease cardiovascular risk in pediatric patients and to optimize therapeutic strategies. Thus, early detection of ED may have therapeutic and prognostic implications. To evaluate endothelial dysfunction, especially in children with chronic diseases, a combination of plethysmographic reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and specific biomarkers was used- plasma concentrations of assymetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), E-selectine and vasoadhesive molecules (VCAM) in comparison with healthy controls.
One chapter of this book is dedicated to celiac disease (CD), a chronic autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten ingested with food, which primarily affects the small intestine of genetically predisposed people. Celiac subjects account for 1% of the population in North America and Europe, and classically present with typical malabsorption symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal distention and failure to thrive, especially during the first years of life. The relevent pathogenetic mechanisms are still not fully understood and may be partially linked to an increase in intestinal permeability, which allows for the passage of macromolecules. In CD patients, the high risk of developing other autoimmune diseases seems to be related to the duration of gluten exposure. Unfortunately, a gluten-free diet cannot protect CD subjects either from developing autoimmune thyroid damage or from functional exhaustion of beta pancreatic cells.
The following chapter supplements this information by examining the possibility of extra-intestinal symptoms, such as visual problems related to low levels of vitamin A. The manifestations due to absorptive problems can be retinopathies, cataract, dry eye and cerebral pseudotumor. Autoimmune disorders may include orbital myositis, cerebral calcification, uveitis, and thyroiditis.
The penultimate chapter proposes that improvements in the outcomes of patient care may be achieved by improving patient access, improving technology and operational efficiency, advancements in medical diagnosis and treatment, applying the principles of best practice care, addressing patient’s values and concerns, and improving overall patient understanding, satisfaction, and compliance with recommendations for care. While each of these strategies has its own distinct advantages, the authors maintain that we must pay particular attention to the importance to the physician-care team-patient relationship.
The concluding chapter examines venous thromboembolisms as the most common postoperative medical complications after bariatric surgery. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events, and most bariatric procedures are performed by laparoscopic approach, implying an increased intraabdominal pressure during the surgical procedure that may favor the development of thrombus. The inclusion of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) and compression stockings in the primary prophylaxis of thromboembolic events is recommended. (Nova Medicine and Health)


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Table of Contents:
Preface

Chapter 1. Hemorrhagic Complications of the Classical Anticoagulant Treatment and Direct Anticoagulants (pp. 1-44)
(Montserrat Pérez Pinar and Julián Solís García del Pozo)

Chapter 2. Infectious Mononucleosis: Clinical Manifestations, Investigations, and Management (pp. 45-72)
(Alexander K. C. Leung, Alex H. C. Wong and Kin Fon Leong)

Chapter 3. Thrombosis and Embolism in Kidney Diseases (pp. 73-98)
(Milena Krasimirova Nikolova and Yordan Dimitrov Vlahov)

Chapter 4. Insight into Dietary Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate for Endothelial Dysfunction (pp. 99-124)
(Kazuo Yamagata)

Chapter 5. The Prevalence and Bolstering Factors of HIV Infection in Bangladesh (pp. 125-144)
(Razoanul Haque, Md. Abdur Rahim, Omar Sadi Sakar, Najmuj Sakib, Tanjir Tarek Ibn Siddique, Mariya Kibtiya Sumiya, Md. Imtiazul Islam, Anisul Islam and Shuvra Kanti Dey)

Chapter 6. Streptozotocin: Pharmacology, Effectiveness and Side Effects (pp. 145-162)
(Renata O. Samuel, Mariane M. Azuma, Dóris H. Sumida, Gustavo Sivieri-Araújo, Rogério de C. Jacinto, Eloi Dezan-Júnior, João E. Gomes-Filho and Luciano T. A. Cintra)

Chapter 7. Nerve Palsy after Total Hip Replacement (pp. 163-176)
(Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann, Fabiano Da Silva Marques and Leandro De Freitas Spinelli)

Chapter 8. Yellow Fever in Brazil: Actions for Vaccination in the Years 2017 and 2018, Transmission of the Virus and Future Perspectives (pp. 177-188)
(Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone)

Chapter 9. Endothelial Dysfunction in Children and Young Adults: A Combined Diagnostic Approach of Plethysmographic and Biochemical Markers (pp. 189-202)
(Aneta Masopustová, Marcela Kreslová, Josef Sýkora, Petr Jehlička, Ladislav Trefil and Jiří Kobr)

Chapter 10. Endocrinological Disorders in Children with Celiac Disease (pp. 203-212)
(Mauro Bozzola, Chiara Gertosio, Elena Bozzola and Alberto Villani)


Chapter 11. Ocular Diseases in Patients with Celiac Disease (pp. 213-224)
(Thiago Gonçalves dos Santos Martins, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo Costa and Aytan Miranda Sipahi)

Chapter 12. Improving Patient Care by Helping Physicians Adjust to the Stress and Pressures of Today’s Health Care Environment: The Importance of Compassionate Care Relationships (pp. 225-234)
(Alan H. Rosenstein)

Chapter 13. Prophylaxis of Deep-Vein Thrombosis in Bariatric Surgery (pp. 235-242)
(Jaime Ruiz-Tovar and Carolina Llavero)

Index (pp. 243)

Total Pages: 253

   Series:
      Advances in Health and Disease
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2018-August
   ISBN: 978-1-53613-951-8
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
Special Focus Titles
01.Violent Communication and Bullying in Early Childhood Education
02.Cultural Considerations in Intervention with Women and Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
03.Chronic Disease and Disability: The Pediatric Lung
04.Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Health: New Research
05.Fire and the Sword: Understanding the Impact and Challenge of Organized Islamism. Volume 2

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Advances in Health and Disease. Volume 6