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D-Amino Acids: Practical Methods and Protocols, Volume 4: Enzymes Involved in the Metabolism of D-Amino Acids
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Editors: Ryuichi Konno (Dokkyo University School of Medicine), Hans Brückner (Justus-Leibig-Universität Giessen) , Antimo D'Aniello (Stazione Zoologica "A. Dohrn"), George H. Fisher (Barry University), Noriko Fujii (Kyoto University) and Hiroshi Homma (Kitasato Un
Book Description:
D-Amino acids are stereoisomers or optical isomers of naturally occurring L-amino acids. D Amino acids and L-amino acids have almost the same physical and chemical properties. D-Amino acids have been considered to be unnatural substances that are produced only when we synthesize amino acids in laboratories or factories. Indeed, equal amounts of D-amino acids and L-amino acids (racemic mixture) are produced by chemical synthesis. Until recently, living organisms were thought to contain exclusively L-amino acids. Before the emergence of life, D- and L-amino acids should have existed on the primitive earth, because amino acids are considered to be produced under the conditions of high temperature, high pressure and lightning. It is an interesting and important question why D-amino acids were eliminated and organisms have evolved using only L-amino acids. This mystery has not been solved. D-Amino acids have been considered exceptional amino acids that exist only in prokaryotes and a part of lower organisms. However, the development and improvement of analytical instruments and methods have revealed that D-amino acids are present in organisms far more in the amount and extent than previously considered. It has become clear that D-amino acids are present in invertebrates and vertebrates including humans and that some of D-amino acids have important physiological functions. Biological systems for synthesis and degradation of D-amino acids have also been found.Volume 4 is dedicated to enzymes involved in the metabolism of D-amino acids.

Table of Contents:
Preface

Chapter 1. Purification of Alanine Racemase from Helicobacter pylori, pp. 1-4
(Katsushi Nishimura and Yoko Bagata)

Chapter 2. Disruption of Alanine Racemase Gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, pp. 5-10
(Takayuki Kazuoka, Takuma Uo and Nobuyoshi Esaki)

Chapter 3. Assay Method for Aspartate Racemase Activity by HPLC, pp. 11-17
(Noriyuki Nimura and Hiroshi Homma)

Chapter 4. Serine Racemase of Silkworm, Bombyx mori, pp. 19-23
(Tohru Yoshimura)

Chapter 5. Recombinant Serine Racemase Preparation, pp. 25-28
(Veronika N. Foltyn and Herman Wolosker)

Chapter 6. D-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity Assays, pp. 29-39
(Maria A. Vanoni and Bruno Curti)

Chapter 7. Histochemical Detection of D-Amino-Acid Oxidase Activity in Rat Brain, pp. 41-45
(Hiroyuki Tanaka, Atsushi Yamamoto, Tetsuo Ishida and Kihachiro)

Chapter 8. Evaluation of Chiral Inversion of D-Amino Acid by Stable Isotope Methodology, pp. 47-58
(Hiroshi Hasegawa, Yoshihiko Shinohara and Takao Hashimoto)

Chapter 9. Engineering the Substrate Specificity of D-Amino Acid Oxidase by Rational and Directed Evolution Methods, pp. 59-71
(Elena Rosini, Silvia Sacchi, Mattia Pedotti, Mirella S. Pilone, Loredano Pollegioni, and Gianluca Molla)

Chapter 10. Transformation of Plants with D-Amino Acid Resistance Selectable Markers, pp. 73-79
(Oskar Forsum and Torgny Nasholm)

Chapter 11. Screening for Mutant Mice Lacking D-Amino-Acid Oxidase Activity, pp. 81-85
(Ryuichi Konno)

Chapter 12. Astroglial Expression of D-Amino Acid Oxidase: Regional and Cell-Type Specific Expression, pp. 87-97
(Hwan Ki Park, Yoshiteru Urai, Osamu Jinnouchi, Atsuhiko Suzue, Tokujiro Kanamori, Kyung Tak Kwak, Oded Ben-Yoseph, Shinji Nagahiro, and Kiyoshi Fukui)

Chapter 13. D-Amino Acid Oxidase: A Versatile Tool to Study the Function of the Glial-Derived Neuromodulator D-Serine at Glutamatergic Synapses, pp. 99-111
(Jean-Pierre Mothet)

Chapter 14. Resonance Raman Study on Charge-Transfer Complexes
of Porcine D-Amino Acid Oxidase, pp. 113-122
(Yasuzo Nishina, Kyosuke Sato, and Kiyoshi Shiga)

Chapter 15. Immunodetection of D-Aspartate Oxidase, pp. 123-127
(Gabriella Tedeschi, Severino Ronchi and Kiyoshi Armando Negri)

Chapter 16. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of D-Aspartate Oxidase Activity in Rat Tissues, pp. 129-134
(Atsushi Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Tetsuo Ishida, and Kihachiro Horiike)

Chapter 17. Cloning of the Human Brain D-Aspartate Oxidase cDNA and its Expression in Escherichia coli, pp. 135-140
(Chiaki Setoyama and Retsu Miura)

Chapter 18. Methods for N-Acyl-d-Amino Acid Amidohydrolase Research, pp. 141-153
(Mamoru Wakayama, Kazuaki Yoshimune, and Mitsuake Moriguchi)

Chapter 19. Activity Measurement of Hydantoin Racemase Enzyme: A Key for the Production of Optically Pure D-Amino Acids, pp. 155-160
(Sergio Martinez-Rodriguez, Josefa Maria Clementa-Jimenez, Felipe Rodriguez-Vico and Francisco Javier Las Heras-Vazquez)

Chapter 20. Enzymes Acting on D-Amino Acid Amides, pp. 161-172
(Yasuhisa Asano)

Chapter 21. Activity on D-Tryptophan Attributable to Trivial Conformational Change of Trypotphanase in Highly Concentrated Ammonium Phosphate Solution, pp. 173-192
(Akihiko Shimada)

Index

   Series:
      D-Amino Acids: Practical Methods and Protocols
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2009
   ISBN: 978-1-60741-379-0
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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D-Amino Acids: Practical Methods and Protocols, Volume 4: Enzymes Involved in the Metabolism of D-Amino Acids