The eminence, safety, and well-being of nations have been entwined for centuries with the ability of their people to deal with sophisticated quantitative ideas. Leading societies have commanded mathematical skills that have brought them advantages in medicine and health, in technology and commerce, in navigation and exploration, in defense and finance, and in the ability to understand past failures and to forecast future developments. This book explores the actions that must be taken to strengthen the American people in this central area of learning. Success matters to the nation at large and to its individual students and families, because it opens doors and creates opportunity. Much of this book on mathematics and science in the United States focuses on national economic competitiveness and the economic well-being of citizens and enterprises.