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RECENT EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE SALTATING SAND PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND WIND-SAND INTERACTION IN SALTATION $100.00
Authors:  Wei Zhang and Sang Joon Lee
Abstract:
Saltation is the primary transport mode of wind-blown sand particles, accounting for
about 75% of total sand transport through saltation, suspension and surface creep. It
provides momentum that drives the other two sand transport modes. The impact event of
saltating sand particles is the major cause of wind erosion and damage to the ground
surface. Therefore, it is essential to understand the basic physics in saltation process for
the prevention of wind erosion. The mechanism involved in saltation has not been
entirely clarified, which prevents establishing accurate theoretical models for predicting
saltating sand transport. In particular, complex interactions among the saltating sand
particles, the particles on the ground surface and the turbulent air-flow have not been yet
fully understood owing to lack of experimental data measured simultaneously for the
wind and wind-blown sand.
This chapter presents our recent experimental studies on the fundamental issues of
sand particle transport and the wind-sand interaction in saltation. Various state-of-the-art
flow measurement techniques were applied to comprehensively examine three different
types of natural sand; two samples collected from the Pohang beach (d=200-300 μm and
300-500 μm) in South Korea and the other from the Taklimakan desert (d=100-125 μm)
in China. Firstly, high-speed photography was used to capture images of the saltating
sand particles at 2000 fps (frames per second), which resolved the particle motion
adjacent to the surface. The saltating particle trajectories were reconstructed and the physical quantities characterizing the ejection and impact events were statistically
analyzed. Secondly, instantaneous velocities of the saltating sand particles were obtained
using the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method. The particle resultant velocity,
concentration and the streamwise mass flux were evaluated as a function of height.
Finally, the velocity fields of wind and wind-blown sand particles were simultaneously
measured based on a digital phase mask technique. The PTV and particle imaging
velocimetry (PIV) were used to extract the velocity field information of dispersed sand
particles and the surrounding wind flow, respectively. With the state-of-art advanced
flow measurement techniques, this systematic experimental study shed new lights on the
complicated saltation motion near the sand bed surface, and will be helpful in enhancing
formulation of theoretical models and development of effective control measures of wind
erosion. 


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RECENT EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE SALTATING SAND PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND WIND-SAND INTERACTION IN SALTATION