SIMULATION OF ACTIVE SOLAR SPACE HEATING AND DOMESTIC HOT WATER PREPARATION IN A PASSIVE HOUSE pp.41-68
Authors: (Viorel Badescu , Candida Oancea Institute, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042, Romania)
Abstract: Every sustainable energy strategy should aim to reduce the energy consumption, to include a significant proportion of renewable energy among the supply sources and to provide the remaining heating energy with high efficiency. The energy consumed in buildings accounts for more than 40% of the final energy consumption in Central Europe. For the reader’s convenience we present, as an example, a few basic facts about building standards in Germany. The thermal quality of new German residential buildings has improved greatly over the last few decades due to technological developments, improvements in building quality and increasingly stringent specifications in the thermal insulation regulations. The current average heat load is about 150 kWh per square meter yearly. In the 1980s, the low-energy house standard arose after the oil crises, with a space heat load about 75 kWh/(m2y). Following the example of north European countries, the first passive house (PH) was built in the year 1992. The main prerequisite of being a passive house is that the building’s annual space heating demand must not exceed 15 kWh/(m˛y). Furthermore, the building’s annual primary energy consumption for space heating, hot water and building services must not exceed 120 kWh/(m˛y). Passive houses need about 80% less heating energy than new buildings designed to the standards of the 1995 German Thermal Insulation Ordinance (CEPHEUS, 2001). Up to 2001, about 1000 passive house units had been built in Germany and this amount sensibly doubles every year (Feist, 2001).