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Ultrasonic Assisted Fixed Abrasive Machining of Hard-Brittle Materials (pp. 73-102) $100.00
Authors:  (Yongbo Wu, Yaguo Li, Jianguo Cao, Zhiqiang Liang, Department of Machine Intelligence & Systems Engineering, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo, Japan, and others)
Ultrasonics has been identified as a practical and vital technique in manufacturing,
especially in the high efficiency and precision machining of difficult-to-machine
materials, which, in some cases, is otherwise considerably difficult to be accomplished
without ultrasonics. Traditional machining in the presence of ultrasonics can be
categorized into ultrasonic machining (USM) and ultrasonic assisted machining (UAM).
The USM involves the use of ultrasonics to energize loose abrasives and the energized
abrasives impinge upon surfaces of workpieces to remove material in the form of
mechanical actions such as hammering, rolling and sliding of abrasives and occasionally
chemical actions- ultrasonic cavitation erosion. In contrast with USM, UAM refers to
machining that ultrasonics is incorporated into widespread machining techniques such as
cutting and grinding. The UAM has proven to enhance the machinability of difficult-tomachine
materials and/or improve the quality of workpiece surfaces, which is due greatly
to exceptional ability to dispel machining debris and/or to reduce machining forces and
resultant machining heating.
This chapter concentrates on the introduction of the UAM technique where
ultrasonics is applied to fixed abrasive machining as there is an increasing tendency to
supersede loose abrasives owing mainly to low-efficiency and cost-ineffectiveness of
loose abrasive machining. The chapter commences with a succinct introduction of the
principles of the USM and the UAM and then proceeds to internal grinding with the aid
of ultrasonics, which is followed by ultrasonic assisted grinding of mono-crystalline
silicon and sapphire, and ends with a recently proposed technique of ultrasonic assisted
fixed abrasive polishing of optical glass. In each part, processing principle and apparatus
will be described concisely and the machining methods are ultimately evaluated in terms
of surface roughness and/or material removal rate, etc. 

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Ultrasonic Assisted Fixed Abrasive Machining of Hard-Brittle Materials (pp. 73-102)