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Large (March 26, 2004) Landslide on Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and its Stability Analysis pp. 229-242 $100.00
Authors:  (Satoshi Tsuchiya, Faculty of Agriculture, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka-shi, Japan)
A large landslide with a volume of about 200 million m3, a width of about 1600 m, and a height of about 750 m occurred on March 26, 2004 at 13:45 local time, on a steep caldera wall on the northwest flank of Mt. Bawakaraeng (2830 m) at the headwater of the Jeneberang River in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The debris avalanche extended about 7 km from the headwater and buried the river valley, causing devastating damage. There are many calderas in the world, notably in Japan. If a large-sector collapse were to occur in a heavily populated area, it would be a devastating disaster for the people living there. The aim of this study is to clarify such a large landslide and explain its mechanism of occurrence. It should be clarified how serious the size of landslide and long-runout of the landslide are in the world. We evaluated the stability of the original slope before the landslide, using the limit equilibrium method and the finite-element based shear strength reduction method (SSRFEM) with the strength reduction factor. The limit equilibrium method showed that a rise in the groundwater level caused the landslide. Although the critical slip surface predicted by SSRFEM was shallower than that of the actual slip surface, the end positions of the actual and predicted slip surfaces were almost the same. Moreover, the end position of the critical slip surface before the landslide—the headwater of the Jeneberang River—was a knick point at which the slope inclination became steeper. SSRFEM may be useful for evaluating the slope stability of large landslides, because the critical slip surface predicted by this method was close to the actual surface, even though we assumed homogenous conditions without information on the degree of weathering or ground properties. As the knickpoint formed at the end of the critical slip surface is equivalent to that formed at the end of the actual slip surface, we assume that such topographic features are the primary geomorphologic cause of the landslide. 

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Large (March 26, 2004) Landslide on Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and its Stability Analysis pp. 229-242