In the past decade, public and congressional concerns over biological weapons, (BW), and bioterrorism in particular, have sharply increased. Though the use of living organisms to harm or kill humans, livestock or plants has never occurred on a large scale, many government officials are viewing a BW attack as a "“when, not if"”scenario. The United States has statutes and regulations that govern possession and use of dangerous biological agents, as well as federal programs intended to deter, respond to, and/or mitigate a BW attack. However, both have been criticized as being too loose to maintain effective control and lacking in coordination. This volume examines the possible threat of BW use as well as the laws, regulations, and current federal programs intended to combat a potential attack of this nature.