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Clean Fuels in the Marine Sector
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Editors: EPA
Book Description:
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), along with other regulatory bodies in the United States and Canada, is considering whether to designate one or more SOx Emission Control Areas (SECAs) along the North American coastline, as provided for by MARPOL
Annex VI. This addition to the international MARPOL treaty went into effect on May 19, 2005, and places limits on both NOx and SOx emissions.

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Table of Contents:
Preface

1 Introduction;pp. 1-10

1.1 Regulations and Options for Compliance

1.2 Summary of the Analysis

1.3 Organization of this Report

2 Overview of the Marine Fuels Industry;pp. 11-32

2.1 Refining of Petroleum Products (Including Marine Fuels)

2.1.1 Primary Refinery Inputs

2.1.1.1 Crude Oil

2.1.1.2 Blending Stocks and Additives

2.1.2 Refinery Production Models

2.1.2.1 Topping Refineries

2.1.2.2 Hydroskimming Refineries

2.1.2.3 Cracking Refineries

2.1.2.4 Coking Refineries

2.1.3 Refineries Around the World

2.2 Marine Fuel Types

2.2.1 Marine Fuel Blending Stocks

2.2.2 Marine Gas Oil (MGO)

2.2.3 Marine Distillate Oil (MDO)

2.2.4 Intermediate Fuel Oil (IFO)

2.3 Bunker Fuel Suppliers

2.3.1 Singapore

2.3.1.1 Refineries

2.3.1.2 Bunker Traders

2.3.1.3 Bunker Suppliers

2.3.1.4 Barge Operators

2.3.2 Rotterdam

2.3.2.1 Refineries

2.3.2.2 Bunker Traders

2.3.2.3 Bunker Suppliers

2.3.2.4 Barge Operators

2.3.3 Fujairah

2.3.3.1 Refineries

2.3.3.2 Bunker Traders

2.3.3.3 Bunker Suppliers

2.3.3.4 Barge Operators

2.3.4 Houston

2.3.4.1 Refineries

2.3.4.2 Bunker Traders

2.3.4.3 Bunker Suppliers

2.3.4.4 Barge Operators

3 Demand for Bunker Fuels in the Marine Industry;pp. 33-58

3.1 Summary of the Modeling Approach

3.2 Methods of Forecasting Bunker Fuel Consumption

3.2.1 Composite Commodities and Regions

3.2.2 Ship Analysis by Vessel Type and Size

3.2.2.1 Fleet Average Daily Fuel Consumption

3.2.2.2 Key Assumptions Affecting the Forecast

3.2.2.3 Changing Fleet Characteristics

3.2.3 Trade Analysis by Commodity Type and Trade Route

3.2.3.1 Days at Sea and Days in Port

3.2.3.2 Number of Voyages

3.2.3.3 Exceptions: General Cargo and Container Trades

3.2.4 Calculating Total Estimated Fuel Demand for Cargo Vessels

3.2.4.1 Total Fuel Demand in Year y, for y = 2005, 2012, 2020

3.2.5 U.S. Domestic Navigation

3.2.5.1 Ship Analysis by Vessel Type and Size

3.2.5.2 Fleet Average Daily Fuel Consumption

3.2.5.3 Voyage Parameters

3.2.6 Ship Analysis for Noncargo Vessels

3.2.7 Bunker Fuel Grades

3.3 Results of Bunker Fuel Forecasts

4 Estimating Business-as-Usual Projections Using the WORLD Model;pp. 59-85

4.1 WORLD Model Enhancements to Accommodate Compliance Alternatives

4.2 WORLD Model Enhancements to Accommodate Alternate Fuel Demand Forecasts

4.3 Enhancements to Ensure Bunker Fuel Stability

4.4 Enhancements to WORLD Model Reporting

4.5 WORLD Model Assumptions and Structural Changes

4.5.1 AEO 2006 Outlook—Supply/Demand/Price Basis

4.5.2 Product Quality

4.5.2.1 Industrialized World

4.5.2.2 Non-OECD Regions

4.5.3 Residual Fuel for Industrial/Inland Use

4.5.4 Biofuels

4.5.5 Regional Bunker Demands

4.5.6 Regulatory Outlook for Bunker Fuels

4.5.6.1 Primary Bunker Quality Regulations

4.5.6.2 EU SECA Compliance

4.5.7 IFO Viscosity/Grade Mix

4.5.8 Refinery Capacity and Projects

4.5.9 Refinery Technology and Costs

4.5.10 Transportation

4.6 Input Prices for the WORLD Model

4.6.1 Marker Crude Price

4.6.2 Natural Gas Price

4.6.3 Miscellaneous Prices

4.7 Reporting

5 The WORLD Model’s BAU Projections for 2012 and 2020;pp. 87-110

5.1 Supply–Demand Balance

5.2 Refining Capacity Additions

5.3 Refining Economics and Prices

5.4 Crude and Product Trade

5.5 Bunker Fuels’ Quality and Blending

6 Technology Considerations;pp. 111-128

6.1 Fuel Switching

6.1.1 Primer on Bunker Fuel Treatment and Heating Plants

6.1.2.1 Lubricating Oil Systems

6.1.2.2 Fuel Viscosity and Feed Temperature

6.1.3 Practicality of Switching to Low-Sulfur Fuels in SECA

6.1.3.1 Fuel Compatibility

6.1.3.2 Fuel Feed Temperature

6.1.3.3 Fuel System Configuration

6.1.3.4 Shipboard Fuel Oil Tankage

6.1.3.5 Maersk Pilot Fuel Switch Initiative

6.1.4 Other Approaches to Using Low-Sulfur Fuels in SECAs

6.1.4.1 Full-Time Fuel Switching

6.1.4.2 Onboard Blending

6.1.4.3 Installation of a Separate LSFO System

6.1.5 Emissions Reduction Potential

6.2 Exhaust Gas Scrubbing

6.3 Description of Scrubber Technology

6.4 Scrubber Penetration Scenarios

6.5 Summary Remarks

7 SECA Fuel Consumption Estimates;pp. 129-138

7.1 Summary of the SECA Fuel Consumption Modeling Approach

7.2 SECA Scenario Boundaries

7.3 Estimating Distances Traveled within SECA Boundaries

7.4 100/50 nm SECA Fuel Consumption Estimates

7.5 200 nm SECA Fuel Consumption Estimates

7.6 Fuel Consumption Comparison across SECA Scenarios

8 SECA Fuel Impact Assessments;pp. 139-165

8.1 Summary

8.2 Basis of WORLD Model Cases for SECA Fuels’ Effects

8.2.1 Cases Run

8.2.2 Bunker Quality Premises

8.2.3 Bunker Demand Projections

8.2.4 WORLD Model Weight/Volume Features and Bunker Methodology

8.2.4.1 Model Reporting Extensions

8.3 Case Results Details

8.3.1 Global Refinery Investments and Capacities

8.3.2 Crude Supply Cost/Price Differentials

8.3.3 Product/Marine Fuels' Costs

8.3.4 Total Fuel Costs (All Products from LPG to Coke, Including Gasoline, Distillates, and Marine Fuels)

8.3.5 CO2 Emissions

8.4 Tabulated Results

References;pp. 167-170

Appendix A Review of Refinery Process Costs;pp. 171-179

Index

   Series:
      Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology
   Binding: Hardcover
   Pub. Date: 2010
   Pages: 7 x 10, 186 pp.
   ISBN: 978-1-60741-275-5
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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Clean Fuels in the Marine Sector