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Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects $39.00
Authors: Rene Hubner (Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden, Germany) 
Book Description:
During the last few years, copper has become the standard metallization material for onchip interconnects in high-performance microprocessors. Compared to the previously used aluminum, copper shows not only a lower resistivity, but also significantly improved
electromigration resistance. Copper ions, however, are very mobile in silicon and many dielectric materials under electrical and thermal bias. Thus, barrier layers are needed to prevent Cu diffusion into the insulating layers surrounding the metallic interconnects. Since Ta-based compounds are characterized by a high thermal stability, pure Ta films or layer stacks consisting of Ta and TaN are used for such barriers. The continuous scaling down of the interconnect dimensions and, therefore, the essential decrease in the barrier layer thickness coupled with the replacement of silicon oxide by advanced low-k dielectrics demand further improvements of the diffusion barrier performance. It is the aim of this book to carry out microstructure and functional property investigations for advanced, high-performance Tabased diffusion barriers (Ta-TaN layer stacks and Ta-Si-N single layers) before and after annealing to compare their thermal stabilities and to probe the corresponding failure mechanisms. For the Ta-TaN barriers, these studies are undertaken for a range of layer sequences, while for the Ta-Si-N barriers a variety of films with different chemical compositions are analyzed.

Table of Contents:
Preface

1. Introduction

1.1. Motivation

1.2. Diffusion in Thin Film Samples and Bulk Materials

1.2.1. Fick's First Law

1.2.2. Bulk Diffusion- Fick's Second Law

1.2.3. Grain Boundary Diffusion

1.2.4. Dislocatio Diffusion

1.2.5. Temperature Dependence of Diffusion

1.2.6. Diffusion Hierarchy

1.3. Diffusion of Copper in Silicon and Dielectric Materials

1.4. Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects

1.4.1. Potential Materials for Cu Diffusion Barriers

1.4.2. Barrier Deposition Techniques

1.4.3. Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers

1.5. Aim of This Study

2. Experimental Details

2.1. Sample Preparation

2.2. Annealing Experiments

2.3. Sample Analysis

3. Microstructure and Functional Properties of as-Deposited Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers

3.1. Ta-TaN Layer Stacks

3.2. Ta-Si-N Single Layers

4. Thermal Stability of Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers in SiO2

4.1. Ta-TaN Layer Stacks

4.1.1. Reaction Behavior with SiO2

4.1.2. Structure Changes for Cu-capped Ta-TaN Layer Stacks

4.2. Ta-Si-N Single Layers

4.2.1. Reaction Behavior with SiO2

4.2.2 Structure Changes for Cu-Capped Ta-Si-N Single Layers

5. Trace-Analytical Techniques for a Sensitive Proof of Cu Diffusion

5.1. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)

5.2. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS)

6. Thermal Stability of Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers on Silicon and Barrier Failure Mechanisms

6.1. Ta-TaN Layer Stacks

6.1.1. Reaction Behavior with Silicon

6.1.2. Structure Changes for Cu-capped Ta-TaN Layer Stacks

6.2. Ta-Si-N Single Layers

6.2.1. Reaction Behavior with Silicon

6.2.2. Structure Changes for Cu-Capped Ta-Si-N Single Layers

Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

Index

   Binding: ebook
   Pub. Date: 2008
   ISBN: 978-1-60741-675-3
   Status: AV
  
Status Code Description
AN Announcing
FM Formatting
PP Page Proofs
FP Final Production
EP Editorial Production
PR At Prepress
AP At Press
AV Available
  
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Advanced Ta-Based Diffusion Barriers for Cu Interconnects