Abstract: Pharyngeal disease and/or dysfunction is responsible for many cases of dysphagia (difficulty swallowing). This can result in dehydration, malnutrition and life-threatening conditions such as aspiration pneumonia and choking. There can be a significant social cost in dysphagia, with patients who experience impairment in their ability to eat normally becoming isolated or embarrassed. Eating and swallowing problems can arise from a number of different aetiologies. These include neurological causes such as brainstem and cortical stroke, cranial nerve dysfunction, neoplasms including brain tumours and head and neck cancers, surgery, head injuries, congenital defects, myopathies, progressive neurological diseases such as Parkinson's Disease and Motor Neuron Disease (Lou Gehrig's Disease), trauma and burns. Dysphagia and its management is a highly specialised area which incorporates the skills of a multidisciplinary team in diagnosis and treatment. In recent years, the research into pharyngeal dysphagia has expanded knowledge of the area and has provided new and effective ways in which to alleviate eating and swallowing impairment. This chapter discusses causes of and current treatment approaches in managing and alleviating pharyngeal dysphagia.