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Effects of Maxillofacial Disorders on Pharyngeal Structures and Orthodontic Treatment Modalities $100.00
Authors:  Nihat KILIÇ and Husamettin OKTAY
The human body constitutes a functional entity, no part of which can be varied without entailing some changes in other parts. Similarly, the facial skeleton and the dentition are functional parts of the skull as a whole. The stomatognathic system consists of mouth, upper and lower jaws, teeth, upper respiratory tract, pharynx, and the other structures related with mastication, deglutition, respiration, speech, and the functions in a functional entity according to functional matrix theory. Developmental disorders in any organ of this system and/or functional aberrations will also affect the other components.
The relationships between respiratory disturbances and maxillofacial growth and development have been the center of interest among orthodontists for years. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that a close relationship exist between nasal respiration and dentofacial form and development. Mouth-breathing causes serious negative effects on the normal development of nasomaxillary and craniofacial structures.
Maxillofacial abnormalities are related with the nasal and pharyngeal problems including impaired nasal respiration, mouth breathing, pharyngeal infections, breathing disturbances and even conductive hearing loss. This chapter aimed to evaluate the effects of the developmental disturbances in maxillofacial region on the pharyngeal and neighboring structures. The present paper will also assess the effects of orthodontic and/or orthopedic approaches such as maxillary protraction, rapid maxillary expansion, activator, headgear, and etc. 

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Effects of Maxillofacial Disorders on Pharyngeal Structures and Orthodontic Treatment Modalities