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NotificationsNotify me of updates to BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS BY CELL SURFACE ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ARMING TECHNOLOGY TO DESIGN BIOCATALYST FOR CONSOLIDATED BIOPROCESSING (CBP) SYSTEM
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BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS BY CELL SURFACE ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ARMING TECHNOLOGY TO DESIGN BIOCATALYST FOR CONSOLIDATED BIOPROCESSING (CBP) SYSTEM $100.00
Authors:  Kouichi Kuroda and Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Abstract:
Lignocellulosic biomass, the most abundant renewable material on earth, consists
mainly of three polymeric constituents, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose
and hemicellulose can be converted into bioethanol through their conversion into sugar
by cellulolytic enzymes and fermentation. Recently, biofuel produced from
lignocellulosic biomass has attracted widespread attention as a promising alternative to
petroleum because it does not disturb food supply and carbon dioxide released by biofuel
consumption is recycled by photosynthesis. Cellulose is a linear and highly ordered
polymer of cellobiose, and is degraded synergistically by cellulolytic enzymes.
Endoglucanases produce reducing and nonreducing ends from the internal region of
amorphous, soluble, and substituted celluloses. Cellobiohydrolases release cellobiose
from crystalline cellulose and produce cellobiose and other short cellooligosaccharides
from the reducing or nonreducing ends. Then, β-glucosidase cleaves cellobiose and
cellooligosaccharides to produce glucose. This glucose can then be assimilated into
fermentative ethanol in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell surface engineering of
yeasts is an attractive strategy for molecular breeding of novel yeasts and whole-cell
biocatalysts that can directly produce ethanol from cellulose. Using this technique, the
cellulolytic enzymes described above could be displayed on the yeast cell surface with
the retention of their enzymatic activities. In addition, the simultaneous display of various enzymes on a single cell surface is also possible. Thus, yeast cells displaying cellulolytic
enzymes can produce fermentative ethanol after the hydrolytic degradation of cellulosic
biomass. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of lignocellulose to ethanol is the most ideal
system combining multisteps such as production of cellulolytic enzymes, cellulose
hydrolysis, and fermentation of sugars in one reactor. CBP is expected as a potential
approach to low-cost bioethanol production from cellulosic biomass. Cell surface
engineering is the epoch-making technology required for CBP to produce biofuels from
cellulosic biomass in the future, which would contribute to the establishment of a
sustainable society based on biomass resources. 


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BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM CELLULOSIC BIOMASS BY CELL SURFACE ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ARMING TECHNOLOGY TO DESIGN BIOCATALYST FOR CONSOLIDATED BIOPROCESSING (CBP) SYSTEM