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MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CELLULOSIC MATERIALS AT MICRO- AND NANOSCALE LEVELS $0.00
Authors:  Siqun Wang, Seung-Hwan Lee and Qingzheng Cheng
Abstract:
This chapter provides an overview of the mechanical properties of cellulosic
materials at micro- and nano-scale levels, covering micro- and nano-mechanics, the
relevant theory, the methodology, and potential applications for recent developments in
the cellulose field. Firstly, we discuss nano-indentation as an approach for measuring
modulus, hardness, and creep behavior. Nano-indentation is a very promising tool for
measuring the submacro and nanoscale mechanical properties of biomaterials. With
nanoindentation and atomic force microscope (AFM), we have been able to characterize
a wide range of natural fibers that have the potential to be used as natural reinforced
materials. Both regenerated cellulose fibers and pulp fibers have been studied. Using
regenerated cellulose fiber as a model material, we have investigated the relationship
between nanoindentation-based modulus and nano-tensile-based modulus. Ten hardwood
species were tested to investigate the characteristic nanomechanical cell-wall properties
of each species. Secondly, we describe the nano-three-point bending technique for
measuring the bending modulus of single cellulose fibrils. Thirdly, we provide a method
for measuring the compression strength of cellulosic materials through a micro-pillar
compression test. Further, we discuss the fracture behavior of cellulosic materials, as well
as the elastic modulus of wood cell walls as measured by an in-situ bending technique.
Fourthly, we discuss the mechanical properties of the S1 and S3 layers in cell walls as
detected by advanced tools. Finally, we will show how these mechanical properties are
influenced by processes and environmental conditions such as molecular composition,
thermal aging, and refining. 


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