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TREND OF PHREATOPHYTE CONTROL IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL MONITORING AND EVALUATING $100.00
Authors:  Junming Wang and Ted W. Sammis
Abstract:
It has been necessary to control Phreatophytes by mechanical, chemical, and
biological methods because the plants consume much more water than other plants and
waste scarce water resources in arid areas. The conventional mechanical and chemical
control approaches are costly ($1500-$1700/ha for mechanical control and $240-$550/ha
for chemical control), and can cause collateral damage to natural resources, including
unintended impacts to desirable plants. Another disadvantage of chemical control is the
chemical pollution to rivers and ground water. An alternative tool for managing certain
plant invaders is classical biological control, in which specialist herbivores that only feed
on the target plant in its native environments are imported to suppress pest infestations
Biological control uses beetles instead of pesticides to control phreatophytes.
Therefore, it significantly protects environmental quality and reduces the risk of health
problems and other problems associated with pest management. However, to date we
have few data with which to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of biological control and
compare it to other control methods. Evaluation and monitoring of the control results
(infestation areas and water savings from ET reduction) are lacking because the scales of
the controls, both spatial (e.g., over kilometers, thousands of hectares) and temporal
(years), are large, and ground monitoring and evaluation are difficult and time- and laborconsuming.
Efficient phreatophyte control requires a convenient and accurate evaluation
and monitoring tool. 


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TREND OF PHREATOPHYTE CONTROL IN ARID ENVIRONMENTS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL MONITORING AND EVALUATING