This book provides background information for the Higher Education Act (HEA) reauthorization process about the direct assistance for education expenses provided through the federal income tax system. Key features of the benefits are explored. Also explored is the relationship of the traditional student aid delivery system with the tax system as a conduit for postsecondary education assistance, identifying specific issues that may be important for congressional consideration during HEA reauthorization. It also presents newly generated estimates of the value of the credits available to varied eligible recipients. In the absence of actual data, modeling approaches that simulate tax credit values offer perhaps the most promising way to examine the targeting of the education tax credits. Two different modeling approaches are applied in the analysis presented in this book.