Spine and Spinal Cord Injury in Pediatrics, pp. 321-348
Authors: Wihasto Suryaningtyas
Abstract: Although the incidence of spine and spinal cord injury is considered low, but it is still can be found in 1-10% of all spinal cord injuries. For a child is not a miniature of adult, special considerations regarding the spine and spinal cord injury in pediatric population need to be discussed in special chapter. Some aspects that make spine and spinal cord injuries in children differ from their adult counterpart comprise their anatomic and biomechanical features, causes and mechanisms of injuries, patern of injury, type of injury, response to deformation, and outcome. Spinal cord injury without radilogic abnormality (SCIWORA), Atlanto-occipital dislocation, atlanto-axial rotatory fixation, pure subluxation injury (without fracture) are several types of injuries that uniquely or prevalently found in pediatric population. Classification of injury type, biomechanical and special anatomic aspects, clinical characteristics of spine injury in children, and specific type of injury will be delivered in detail through this chapter. Treatment options will also be explained.