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Bladder Cancer in Patients with a Spinal Cord Injury, pp. 549-564 $100.00
Authors:  Ja Hyeon Ku, Cheol Kwak and Hyeon Hoe Kim
Abstract:
Since the life expectancy of patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI) has steadily
improved over the last few decades, the long-term health related risks have become
increasingly important. Patients with a SCI are reported to have a higher incidence of
bladder cancer compared to the general population, and persons with a SCI are at
especially high risk for squamous cell carcinomas. The risk factors for bladder cancer
that are directly related to the neurogenic bladder of patients with a SCI are the
prolonged use of an indwelling catheter, recurrent infections and bladder stone
formation. Several authors have postulated that the histological changes to the urothelium
vary with neuropathic bladder management strategies. However, there has been
considerable variation in the quoted crude incidence rates of the development of cancer;
therefore, the magnitude of the risk has not been clearly defined. The variation in
measured incidence rates, for bladder cancer, in this population is partly a result of
different study designs. Bladder cancer research in patients with a SCI has been limited
by the challenges inherent in following a large cohort of individuals with a SCI long
enough for bladder cancer to develop. Therefore, the natural history of bladder cancer in
patients with a SCI is poorly understood. Current guidelines regarding the optimal
surveillance schedule have yet to be defined, and refined with randomized prospective
analyses. The aim of this study was to review published articles with respect to the
development of bladder cancer in this population. 


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Bladder Cancer in Patients with a Spinal Cord Injury, pp. 549-564