|Authors: Amit Gefen and Eran Linder-Ganz, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
Pressure ulcers (PU) are soft tissue injuries associated with excessive tissue deformation,
ischemia, impaired metabolic activity and insufficient lymph drainage, which are all caused
by prolonged and intensive mechanical loads (Hussain, 1953; Kosiak et al., 1958; Kosiak,
1959; Kosiak, 1961; Daniel et al., 1981; Miller and Seale, 1981; Reddy and Cochran, 1981;
Krouskop, 1983; Bader, 1990; Barbenel, 1991; Knight et al., 2001; Bouten et al., 2003a,b).
Also called bed-sores or decubitus ulcers, PU range in severity from superficial skin irritation
and lesions in subcutaneous and fat tissues to deep muscle necrosis (Shea, 1975; Brandeis et
al., 1990; AHCPR, 1994; Bates-Jensen, 2000; Black, 2005). Serious PU involving extensive
sub-dermal tissue damage, where damage originates in muscle tissue, were recently termed
―deep tissue injury" (DTI) by the US National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP), and
are attracting growing attention by the medical community.