Authors: Charles E. Carraher, Jr., Florida Atlantic University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Boca Raton, Florida, and others
Abstract: Metal-containing polymers are synthesized not only to create new materials but also to take advantage of the new, often essential, properties that are introduced because of the presence of the metal. This is the case with the metal-containing polyamines described in this chapter. Metal-containing polymers are covered in a ten volume series by Wiley entitled Macromolecules Containing Metal and Metal-Like Elements coedited by Abd-El-Aziz, Carraher, Pittman, Sheats, and Zeldin. It is also the topic of numerous reviews and books and of the Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers published by Springer. A listing of some important references works is given at the end of this chapter. The polyamines described here were synthesized employing the interfacial polycondensation process. The interfacial process was popularized by Morgan and Carraher in the 1960s and 1970s and is today employed in the industrial synthesis of polycarbonates and aromatic polyamides [1-4]. This process requires what is referred to as high energy reactants, namely reactants that allow reaction to occur at somewhat low activation energies, generally in the range of 10-20 Kcal/mole (40 to 80 KJ/mole). For polyamine synthesis, the amine-containing reactant is dissolved in one solvent, typically water, along with an added base such as sodium hydroxide. The metal-containing reactant is dissolved in a largely water immiscible liquid such as hexane. The two phases are brought together with rapid stirring and the polymer is typically formed within less than a minute.