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Continuous Saline Water Desalination pp. 193-219 $0.00
Authors:  Yoshinobu Tanaka (IEM Research, Ibaraki, Japan)
Ion exchange membrane electrodialysis desalting system is classified to a continuous (one-pass flow) process, a batch process and a feed and bleed process [Minz, 1963, Itoi et al., 1978, Leiz, 1986, Yawataya, 1986]. Among these processes, the continuous process is applicable to large-scale electrodialysis and its mechanism is investigated as follows.
Belfort and Daly [1970] constructed optimization routine for a continuous electrodialysis plant. The algorithm was applied to the Office of Saline Water test bed plant at Webster, South Dakota and compared the actual cost and operating conditions. Avriel and Zeligher [1972] developed a mathematical model for preliminary engineering design and economical evaluation of a continuous electrodialysis plant. Detailed cost computations were performed resulting in capital investiment and annual operating costs. Lee et al.[2002] developed a computer simulation program for describing a continuous flow process and estimated investiment and operating costs. Further, an electrodialysis plant was designed and optimized in terms of overall costs and different parameters. Moon et al [2004] investigated ionic transport across the membrane based on one- and two-dimensional continuous electrodialysis modeling using the principles of electrochemistry, transport phenomena and thermodynamics.
Fidaleo and Moresi [2005] simulated mass transfer, mass balance and potential drop and limiting current density in a continuous operation based on the Nernst-Planck equation. Tsiakis and Papageorgiou [2005] designed an electrodialysis brackish water desalination plant. The system is modeled mathematically as mixed-integral non-linear programming optimization problem, determining the number of desalination stages, the membrane area, the total required energy so as to minimize the total analyzed cost of the investment accounting for both infrastructure and operating costs. Sadrzadeh et al. [2007] modeled one-pass flow desalination starting from a differential equation of steady-state mass balance and gives concentration in a dilute compartment or separation percent for various voltage, flow rates and feed concentration. Nikonenko et al. [2008] described electrodialysis or electro-deionization characteristics (mass transfer coefficient, Sherwood number, Degree of desalination and others). The reasonability of the functions was discussed with experimental measurements. Brauns et al. [2009] developed simulation model through solver software. Experimental verification of the software was performed using industrial type pilot plant. Limiting current density was theoretically evaluated in the model calculations for design purpose and corrected with the experimental results. 

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Continuous Saline Water Desalination pp. 193-219