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An Update of Ceramics in Dentistry $43.00
Authors:  Sarah Pollington and Richard van Noort
Ceramic materials are among the most biocompatible materials developed for dental restorations. The interest in all-ceramic restorations has rapidly increased over the past decade as stronger, tougher and more aesthetic materials are developed, along with novel processing technologies such as hot pressing and CAD/CAM (computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture[1] . Ceramics are widely used in dentistry because of their natural appearance and excellent mechanical, optical, thermal and chemical properties[2]. Dental ceramics exhibit many desirable material properties, including biocompatibility, chemical inertness, aesthetics, compressive strength, diminished plaque accumulation, low thermal conductivity, abrasion resistance and colour stability [2, 3] . However, the possible applications for dental all-ceramic restorations are limited due to their brittle nature, sensitivity to flaws and defects, low tensile strength and fracture toughness[4]. The presence of numerous surface and internal flaws, which may develop as a result of thermal, chemical or mechanical processes, can act as stress concentrators, reducing the strength of ceramics. These stresses can cause cracks to originate from the defect site which can propagate and lead to catastrophic failure[5]. New materials and different processing methods have been introduced in recent years in an attempt to overcome these inherent problems. This review covers the development of dental ceramics including the history, classification and description of the different types of material, fabrication technologies, and mechanical and physical properties. Emphasis is placed on how these new materials and processing methods are overcoming the aforementioned problems. Clinical trials and longevity data is covered along with preparation guidelines. The evolution of all-ceramic restorations is addressed and focus is placed on high strength core ceramics and resin bonded glass-ceramic restorations. The interest in ceramic materials for dental applications has gradually increased due to the unique properties of ceramics and patient demand for optimal aesthetics as well as metal free alternatives. 

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An Update of Ceramics in Dentistry