Authors: Riccardo D’Aquino, Luigi Laino, Gianluca De Marco, Antonio Mezzogiorno, Luigi Itro and Dardo Menditti
Abstract: Purpose: Head and neck dermoid cysts are development lesions that are rarely observed in the maxillo-facial region. Some totipotential cells are trapped during the fusion of the branchial arches in the midline (sublingual, palate) and in the lateral sites (cheek, parotid, mandible). These cells can develop into the three germ layers. They can become epidermoid (lined by simple squamous epithelium) and dermoid (with cutaneous annexes in the cyst wall), cysts and teratoid lesions with ecto-endo-mesodermel elements (benign, solid or cystic and malignant teratomas). They are frequently present in adults (in their second or third decade of life) and are rare in childhood. These cysts occur most often in the floor of the mouth. Clinically they present as a slow-growing and asymptomatic mass. When these lesions are large enough they are painless and fluctuant and they cause difficulties in speaking, eating and breathing. Methods:. The treatment of this lesions consists of the complete surgical excision with an intraoral or extraoral approach depending on the lesion location. In this study we include all the patients with a lesion that, after the histopatologic analysis, results to be dermoid cyst in the Oral Surgery Department of the Dental School of the Second University of Naples (Naples, Italy) in the period 1999 - 2008. Results: The following article presents a review of seven cases of dermoid cysts of the maxillo-facial region (in the palate, cheek, mandible, parotid, submental regions and two cases in the sublingual region) treated. This kind of lesions were found to be much more common that described in literature in the OMF district and their diagnosis is of fundamental importance in order to better perform the follow up. The radical surgical approach is the only chance to defeat this lesion.