Authors: Dagne, Ted (Congressional Research Service)
Abstract: In recent years domestic and international terrorism in Africa has increased from international terrorist groups carrying out massive attacks in East Africa to domestic extremist groups terrorizing civilians to achieve their political objectives. Beginning shortly after independence, home grown groups and international terrorist organizations carried out multiple terrorist acts, including assassination of American officials and hijacking of planes. The 1990s witnessed a dramatic and daring terrorist attacks against American interests in Africa. The US embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania in 1998 by al Qaeda resulted in the deaths of hundreds of Kenyans and Americans, and injured over 5,000 people. In June 1995, members of the Gama’a Islamiya, an Egyptian extremist group, tried to assassinate President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The eleven-man assassination team had been given safe haven in Sudan to prepare for the attempted assassination of the Egyptian President. The team was divided into two groups: nine were sent to Ethiopia to carry out the assassination; and two, according to a statement issued by the Ethiopian government, remained in Sudan to plan and direct the assassination of Mubarak Sudan Airways flew the weapons used in the assassination attempt into Ethiopia according to US and Ethiopian officials, although the government of Sudan denied complicity in the foiled attempt. The passports used by the terrorists were also prepared in Khartoum, according to a United Nations report.