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New Composite Adsorbents "A Salt in a Porous Matrix": Designing Sorption Properties, pp. 499-521 $100.00
Authors:  (Yuriy I. Aristov - Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia)
The design of innovative adsorbents with advanced and controllable properties is a
challenging goal of material science. In this review paper, we survey recent achievements
in the synthesis and study of a new family of adsorbents for multiple applications. These
are composites “a salt in a porous matrix” (CSPM) which demonstrate an intermediate
behaviour between solid adsorbents, complexes “gas-salt”, and liquid absorbents. By
now, more than fifty CSPMs based on halides, sulphates and nitrates of alkaline and
alkaline earth metals, confined to various matrices (silica, alumina, porous carbons, clays,
MCM-41, etc.), have been synthesised and studied as sorbents of water, methanol,
ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Special attention is paid to discuss the effects of the pore
size and guest-host interaction on the phase composition and properties of the confined
salt. These effects result in the stabilization of the dispersed salt in two phases, namely, a
crystalline phase and an X-ray amorphous phase. In small pores, both the phases are nonautonomous
and possess sorption properties different from those of the bulk salt, which
opens exciting synthetic opportunities.
An important advantage of CSPMs is the possibility to modify controllably their
sorption properties in a wide range by varying a) chemical nature of the impregnated salt,
b) porous structure of the host matrix, c) amount of the confined salt, and d) synthesis
conditions. This allows synthesis of innovative materials with advanced properties which
fit the demands of particular applications. In this review, appropriate examples are given
for various applications, including gas drying, maintaining relative humidity in museums
and libraries and adsorptive heat pumps and chillers. Comparison of CSPMs with
common single-component porous materials (silica gels and zeolites) has been made. 

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New Composite Adsorbents "A Salt in a Porous Matrix": Designing Sorption Properties, pp. 499-521