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Bilingualism and Hispanic American Intelligence Test Scores, pp.181-200 $100.00
Authors:  Philip G. Gasquoine, Aracely Cavazos, Juan Cantu, and Amy L. Weimer University of Texas Pan American
Hispanic Americans as a group score 0.5SD below White Americans on intelligence test
measures (administered in English) that emphasize language processing, but score similarly
when visual-perceptual/visual-motor processing is required. The reason for this language
decrement is unknown. This chapter considers the possible contribution of bilingualism to this
effect, as studies linking bilingualism and cognition (conducted with multiple ethnic
groupings) have consistently shown a bilingual disadvantage compared to monolinguals on
language processing tasks. Two data sets (older children and adults) of bilingual Hispanic
American performance on various intelligence test measures administered in Spanish and
English showed evidence of a visual-perceptual/visual-motor over language processing
advantage of about 1SD. The size of the visual-perceptual/visual-motor over language
advantage was similar in both languages suggesting it is bilingualism-related and not due to
low English language proficiency. Bilingualism appears to be a potentially important factor in
the Hispanic American language processing decrement seen on intelligence tests, although no
direct study on the effect of this variable has yet been conducted. 

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Bilingualism and Hispanic American Intelligence Test Scores, pp.181-200