Clusterization of Atmospheric Water Vapor, Absorption of Greenhouse Molecules by Water Clusters, and Climatic Change
Authors: Alexander Y. Galashev, Institute of Industrial Ecology, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, Russia
Abstract: In the present chapter the influence of atmospheric water vapor clusterization on climate change of the Earth has been investigated by the computer modeling method. As a whole it is possible to consider clusterization as the process resulting from the easing of radiating activity of the atmosphere and the lowering of global temperature. The essence of this anti-greenhouse effect is that the number of centers absorbing and dissipating energy of thermal radiation at the formation of clusters is sharply reduced. Also that the efficiency of absorption of IR radiation is not increased with the growth of cluster size. Additional easing of radiating activity of the atmosphere occurs as a result of absorption of greenhouse gases‘ molecules such as CO2, CH4, and N2O by water clusters. Water clusters that absorbed these molecules, as a rule, reduce the efficiency of Earth radiation absorption and strengthen the power of IR emission radiation. The reflection coefficient of IR radiation of disperse water systems increases after absorption of polar molecules CO2 or N2O, and weakens when clusters absorb nonpolar CH4 molecules. According to the carried out estimation, the greenhouse effect created by atmospheric clusters currently makes 1.0 K. The anti-greenhouse effect of clusters was defined as the difference between the greenhouse effect of free water molecules forming these clusters and the one that clusters have themselves. The quantity of greenhouse effect is equal to 3.3 K. Mass fractions of water vapor, clusters, liquid water and ice crystals in the atmosphere correspond as 70.0: 16.2 : 5.9 : 7.9. Accumulation in the atmosphere of chlorine and bromine compounds results in ozone layer depletion and amplification of ultra-violet radiation in the troposphere. During the last decade the abundance of water in the stratosphere has doubled. The cluster mechanism of atmospheric ozone destruction by Cl- and Br- ions is investigated. More massive Br- ions are kept in water clusters much longer, than Cl- ions, allowing addition of ozone molecules to cluster. At the same time absorption of oxygen molecules, as a rule, leads to evaporation of part of Br- ions from the cluster and to a loss of some oxygen molecules from its environment. With absorbed ozone the intensity of IR absorption spectra of clusters decreases and with absorbed oxygen it increases as the number of Cl- ions grows. When Br- ions are present in the system, the opposite behaviour is observed.