Chemokines: Types, Functions, and Structural Characteristics pp. 123-137
Authors: Yalçın Tüzün, Burhan Engin, Ronni Wolf, Department of Dermatology, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey, and others
Abstract: Chemokine is a scientific term used to describe the chemoattractant cytokines. The role of chemokines as initiators of the inflammatory process has been documented obviously. Exogenous irritants and endogenous mediators have been postulated or proven to be involved in the induction of chemokine production. Chemokines are responsible for the chemoattraction and activation of leukocytes and modulation of angiogenesis. Therefore, chemokines seem to be useful target for the inflammatory dermatoses. Unlike the classical chemoattractants, chemokines present their actions through their target-cell selectivity. Also, chemokines mediate other biological activities such as cellular maturation and hematopoiesis. They may augment the host response to infection, tumors, and vaccines. Chemokine receptor antagonists may inhibit autoimmune, allergic, and septic processes. The structural bases of chemokines include cysteine residues that form disulphide bonds, which also stabilize the core structure. The chemokine superfamily has been divided into four subgroups: C-X-C, C-C, C-X3-C and X-C chemokines. In this chapter, we profile the types, functions, and structural characteristics of chemokines.