Study of Protein Biomarkers for Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Role of High Dose Thiamine on their Level pp. 163-176
Authors: (Samreen Riaz, Department Bioscience Division, Faculty of Life Sciences, Department of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London, United Kingdom, and others)
Abstract: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic and multifactorial syndrome with disordered metabolism and hyperglycemia.The uncontrollable risk factors like genetics and age cannot alter by the people. People can lowered the controllable risk factors like exercise and dietthrough improved health habits and can reduce their risk of developing diabetes(1). There are several types of DM which exist and caused by genetic or environmental factors and lifestyle choices. DM is classified into different types on the basis of pathogenic process. The two broad categories of DM are designated as type 1 and type 2. There are some others types of DM in which specific genetic defects, metabolic and mitochondrial abnormalities and some conditions that impair glucose tolerance are included (2). DM is one of the most widely occurring human ailments and the world wide prevalence has risen over the past two decades. Humans are not the only species that can develop DM. This disease occurs also in some of animals like dogs, cats and other (3).It is quiet obvious that the disease is multiplying geometrically more due to genetic and environmental factors (4). Vitamin is an organic nutrient which is essential and is required in tiny amounts. There are two main types of vitamins, fat soluble and water soluble vitamins. The water soluble vitamins must be eaten more regularly than fat soluble vitamins. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is a water soluble vitamin.It has been used singly and in the compound form as a member of B complex family. It helps the body and converts carbohydrates and fat in the form of energy and essential for normal growth and development of the human body. It also maintains proper function of the heart, nerves and digestive system.It occurs as a part of our diet. Dietary sources of thiamine are cereals, fortified bread/rice, nuts, meats and legumes.Recommended intake of thiamine for men is 1.4 mg/day, for woman is 1.1 mg/day, for pregnant womenis 1.5 mg/day and for breast feedingis 1.6 mg/day. 100g corn flakes or 3-4dl soya milk or 300g ham cover the daily need. It occurs as a part of our diet. Its deficiency results in a disease called beri beri in which cardiovascular, neurological and dermatological complications arise. Thiamine deficiency is treated as 50-100 mg of parenteral thiamin/day, for several days, followed by 5-10 mg of oral thiamin/day. Treatment is successful in about 50% of patients and replacement of other vitamins as needed. Toxicity of thiamine is not known or reported, it is generally safe. However aside of this restricted use and as a general tonic, it has never been administered as therapy for the diseases for many last years(5).