Sampling In Practice: A Tos Toolbox Of Unit Operations (pp. 245-263)
Authors: Petersen, Lars and Esbensen, Kim H. (Aalborg University Esbjerg, Denmark)
Abstract: A basic knowledge of the Theory of Sampling (TOS) and a set of only eight sampling unit operations is all the practical sampler needs to ensure representativeness of samples extracted from all kinds of lots: production batches, - truckloads, - barrels, sub-division in the laboratory, sampling in nature and in the field (environmental sampling, forestry, geology, biology), from raw materials or manufactory processes etc. We here can only give a brief introduction to the Fundamental Sampling Principle (FSP) and these eight Sampling Unit Operations (SUO's). Always respecting FSP and invoking only the necessary SUO's (dependent on the practical situation) is the only prerequisite needed for eliminating all sampling bias and simultaneously minimizing sampling variance, and this is in addition a sure guarantee for making the final analytical results trustworthy. No reliable conclusions can be made unless the entire sampling process corresponds with TOS.