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NotificationsNotify me of updates to How Important are Local Nutrient Emissions to Eutrophication in Coastal Areas Compared to Fluxes from the Outside Sea? A Case-Study using Data from the Himmerfjärden Bay in the Baltic Proper pp. 185-218
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How Important are Local Nutrient Emissions to Eutrophication in Coastal Areas Compared to Fluxes from the Outside Sea? A Case-Study using Data from the Himmerfjärden Bay in the Baltic Proper pp. 185-218 $100.00
Authors:  (Lars Håkanson, Maria I. Stenström-Khalili, Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden)
Abstract:
The basic aim of this work has been to present a general approach to quantify how coastal systems are likely to respond to changes in nutrient loading. The conditions in most coastal areas depend on nutrients emissions from points sources, diffuse sources, river input and the exchange of nutrients and water between the given coast and the outside sea, but all these fluxes can not be of equal importance to the conditions in the given coastal area, e.g., for the water clarity, primary production and concentration of harmfull algae (such as cyanobacteria). This work describes how a general process-based mass-balance model (CoastMab) has been applied for the case-study area, the Himmerfjärden Bay on the Swedish side of the Baltic Proper. The model has previously been extensively tested and validated for salt, phosphorus, suspended particulate matter, radionuclides and metals in several lakes and coastal areas. The transport processes quantified in this model are general and apply for all substances in all aquatic systems, but there are also substance-specific parts (mainly related to the particulate fraction and the criteria for diffusion). This is not a model where the user should make any tuning or change model constants. The idea is to have a model based on general and mechanistically correct algorithms describing the transport processes (sedimentation, resuspension, diffusion, mixing, etc.) at the ecosystem scale and to calculate the role of the different transport processes and how a given system would react to changes in inflow related to natural variations and anthropogenic reductions of water pollutants. The results presented in this work indicate that the conditions in the Himmerfjärden Bay are dominated by the water exchange between the bay and the outside sea. The theoretical surface-water retention time is about 19 days, as determined using the mass-balance model for salt, which is based on comprehensive and reliable empirical data. This means that although this bay is quite enclosed, it is still dominated by the water exchange towards the sea. Local emissions of nutrients to the Himmerfjärden Bay are small compared to the nutrient fluxes from the sea. If the conditions in this, and many similar bays, are to be improved, it is very important to lower the nutrient concentrations in the outside sea. 


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How Important are Local Nutrient Emissions to Eutrophication in Coastal Areas Compared to Fluxes from the Outside Sea? A Case-Study using Data from the Himmerfjärden Bay in the Baltic Proper pp. 185-218