Development and initial validation of the Batten’s Observational Pain Scale: A preliminary study pp. 283-292
Authors: Lynn Breau, Rpsych, Carol Camfield, and Peter Camfield
Abstract: Although several observational pain tools exist for individuals with developmental disabilities, none is designed specifically to assess pain in those with neurodegenerative disorders such as neuronal ceroid lupofuscinosis (NCL). We examined the psychometric properties of the Non-communicating Children‘s Pain Checklist-Revised (NCCPC-R), which was designed for children with non-neurodegenerative disorders and to adapt it as needed. Methods: Parents of 35 children with NCL (11 female, 24 male; mean age = 13 yrs 8 mos, SD = 6 yrs 11 mos) completed the NCCPC-R regarding their child‘s typical pain behaviour and for 3 10-minute observations of their child, one during calm, one during pain and one during distress, They also completed visual analogue ratings (VAS) of pain and distress for each event. Results: The NCCPC-R was sensitive, but not specific to pain. Items were removed to generate a new Batten‘s Observational Pain Scale (BOPS). Total BOPS scores were significantly related to VAS pain ratings (r = .57), and were sensitive (92%) and specific (89%) to pain. Cut-off scores were generated for the presence of pain (4), moderate pain (7) and severe pain(23). Interpretation: The Batten‘s Observational Pain Scale shows good preliminary psychometric properties for children with NCL.