Authors: (Mattias Hagman, Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden)
Abstract: Most species of anurans require ponds for reproduction. The attributes likely to influence a pond‘s suitability as spawning site include factors such as vegetation, depth, water chemistry, presence of predators, hydroperiod and water chemistry. But in many landscapes the availability of suitable ponds is limited. This reliance on scarce resources makes anurans vulnerable to habitat loss. With an estimated 40% of amphibians worldwide at risk of extinction we need to increase our understanding of basic requirements such as suitable spawning sites. On the other end of the scale a large number of anurans are flourishing in environments far outside of their natural range. Many of these exotics may disturb ecosystems and pose a threat to indigenous fauna, including native amphibians. In this chapter I review pond usage by anurans in relation to the problems of amphibian declines and invasive species. I focus on pond manipulations and ways of using that as a potential conservation tool for conserving threatened species as well as controlling invasive anurans.