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Phytoplankton from Subtropical Ponds: Growth Parameters, Carbohydrate Production, and Polysaccharide Composition of Three Chlorophytes pp. 103-124 $100.00
Authors:  (Lucas da Silva Maria, Armando Augusto Henriques Vieira, Danilo Giroldo, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS, Brazil, and others)
Abstract:
Microalgae are found in multiple environments as a result of the diversity of their morphological and physiological adaptations, including the production of a large variety of polysaccharides. This chapter describes the growth parameters as well as the patterns of carbohydrate accumulation and release of three green phytoplanktonic strains isolated from different subtropical ponds. A preliminary characterization of the polysaccharides produced by these strains was also carried out in order to identify potential bioactive compounds. Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlamydophyceae), Ankistrodesmus sp. (Chlorophyceae), and Onychonema sp. (Zygnematophyceae) were isolated by micromanipulation and several washes under the microscope. Microalgae were isolated from subtropical ponds smaller than 10,000 m2, which are found throughout the landscape of the Carreiros campus of the Federal University of Rio Grande. These ponds are located in southernmost areas of Brazil and have different trophic statuses, which range from oligotrophic to hypereutrophic. Experiments were carried out with batch cultures until stationary growth was reached. Samples were collected at 48 and 72-hour intervals to monitor cell growth (direct counts using a microscope), particulate and extracellular dissolved total carbohydrates (phenol-sulfuric), and polysaccharide composition (High Performance Ion Chromatography with Amperometric Detection - HPIC-PAD). Chlamydomonas sp. exhibited the fastest growth rate (0.8 div per day), followed by Ankistrodesmus sp. and Onychonema sp. (0.3 and 0.1 div day-1, respectively). Only Onychonema sp. had a senescent growth phase after 33 days of cultivation. Particulate carbohydrate accumulation occurred simultaneously with growth, except in Onychonema sp., which accumulated particulate carbohydrates during the stationary growth phase. Extracellular dissolved carbohydrates were released continuously during the experiment even after stationary growth was reached. Polysaccharide analysis by HPIC-PAD revealed the presence of arabinose associated with galactose in Chlamydomonas sp., and significant levels of uronic acid in Ankistrodesmus sp. and fucose in Onychonema sp. Polysaccharides with these characteristics are similar to the pectins produced by vascular plants and the fucoidans produced by brown algae, which are associated with antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and other biological activities. On the other hand, the high content of uronic acid-containing polysaccharides can potentially form complex metals and might be used in biotechnology applications. 


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Phytoplankton from Subtropical Ponds: Growth Parameters, Carbohydrate Production, and Polysaccharide Composition of Three Chlorophytes pp. 103-124