The Influence of the Sea Ice on the M2 Dynamics/Energetics in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: The Limiting Cases of NO and Immobile Ice pp. 107-132
Authors: (B.A. Kagan, E.V. Sofina, P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Branch, Pervaya Liniya, St. Petersburg, Russia)
Abstract: The 3D finite-element hydrostatic model QUODDY-4 is applied to simulate the M2 tidal dynamics/energetics and their ice-induced changes in Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). It was established that, unlike such changes in the Arctic Ocean, the changes in CAA might be marked, being as much as 30 cm for tidal amplitudes and 30° or more for tidal phases. The root mean square absolute and relative combined errors in the predicted tidal constants depend on the number of available observational evidence and tidal amplitudes. Therefore a more or less good agreement between the observed and predicted tidal amplitudes and phases may be provided with no assimilation of ground-based and satellite measurement data and even with no correction of depths, but only by means of a proper discretization of water basins in CAA. Distinctions between sought-for variables in the cases of immobile and no ice are assessed in terms of changes in their values in these cases. It was shown that the occurrence of immobile ice could be accompanied by four various combinations of the changes in tidal amplitudes and phases, three of which had already been known and the fourth one (decreasing tidal amplitudes and phases) was first displayed in Amundsen Gulf and Norwegian Bay. As to the ice-induced changes in barotropic tidal energy budget components, they are of order of magnitude of these components per se. Hence, the assumption that the influence of ice on tides is small is correct, although only partially, for the tidal dynamics and completely incorrect for the tidal energetics in CAA.