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Role of Leptin in the Mammary Gland Development, Lactation and in Neonatal Physiology pp. 89-106 $100.00
Authors:  (Mario Baratta, Veterinary Physiology, University of Turin, Italy)
The biology of leptin has been studied most extensively in the central nervous system for the regulation of food intake and energy balance. In recent years, a growing number of publications have reported several activities of this adipose-secreted protein in different organs. These effects appear to be independent of the regulation of food intake or at least not directly correlated to it, but rather related to the hormonal regulation of these particular tissues. Thus leptin is now also considered to be a hormonal factor that informs several hormonal circuits and biological peripheral functions of the nutrition status of the organism. Evidences are reported the role of leptin to regulate mammogenesis during a virgin, pregnancy and involution. In mammary gland, leptin has been observed to exert also an autocrine and/or paracrine activity which affects the development of duct, formation of gland alveolus, expression of milk protein gene and onset involution of mammary gland. Findings with experimental rodent models reveal that exposures to leptin during the in utero and pubertal periods when the mammary gland is undergoing extensive modeling and re-modeling, may alter susceptibility to develop mammary tumors. Leptin synthesis has been found also in the placenta both in human and in livestock animals suggesting a role in controlling growth of the foetus and neonate. Furthermore, colostrum and milk contain high amounts of leptin, in particular during the first few days of lactation, that cause a correlation between milk leptin and plasma leptin, body weight and body mass index. Furthermore, other studies suggest that milk leptin may control appetite. Lastly, since nutrition or neonatal stress can program the immune system, leptin change that occurs in mothers and neonates can imprint hormonal or metabolic changes that influence later life degenerative and chronic diseases. 

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Role of Leptin in the Mammary Gland Development, Lactation and in Neonatal Physiology pp. 89-106