T Helper 17 Cells Interplay with CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ Regulatory T Cells in Regulating Autoimmune Inflammation, pp. 1-32
Authors: (Jietang Mai, Anthony Virtue, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang, Department of Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA)
Abstract: Research in the past decades has clearly demonstrated that chronic inflammation and autoimmune mechanisms play critical roles in the pathogeneses of many diseases including cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis, which are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, several important issues remain to be addressed including the mechanisms underlying the regulation of autoimmune inflammation. It has been recently reported that pro-inflammatory interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing CD4+ T helper cells (Th17 cells) interplay with immunosuppressive CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in controlling inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, in this chapter, we will analyze the progress in the field by focusing on the following topics: 1) the new paradigm of multiple T helper cell subsets; 2) IL-17 family cytokines and Th17 cells; 3) Effects of Th17/IL-17 on various inflammation and autoimmune diseases; 4) the interaction of Tregs and Th17 cells in regulating autoimmune diseases and vascular inflammation. Regulation of autoimmunity and inflammation lies in the interplays of the different T helper subsets, therefore, better understanding of these subsets‟ interactions with one another would greatly improve our approaches in developing therapy to combat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
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