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Immunoregulatory Cells and Mechanisms of Immune Response, pp. 79-97 $100.00
Authors:  (Carol Aristimuño, Roseta Teijeiro, Clara de Andrés, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Department of Immunology and Neurology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain)
The immune system requires a homeostatic equilibrium between the mechanisms that assure self-tolerance, those that control the capacity to mount life-long immunity to pathogenic microbes or toxins, and those that attenuate effector mechanisms from inducing immune pathology. A growing body of evidence suggests that an imbalance in this homeostasis plays a major role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune disease.
A great diversity of regulatory cells types are being progressively identified, such as tolerogenic DCs, CD4+CD25+ TReg, regulatory natural killer (rNK) and CD8+CD28− suppressor T-lymphocytes, among others. Among the different types of immunoregulatory cells, CD4+CD25+ (IL-2 receptor alpha chain) regulatory T CD4+ cells (TReg) play a pivotal role in the tolerance to self-antigens and tissue grafts, and in the suppression of autoimmune reactions. TReg exert modulatory functions upon the activity of self-aggressive T cells not deleted in the thymus and are one of the pillars for maintaining the immune system in homeostatic balance. Indeed, these cells modulate the intensity and quality of immune reactions through attenuation of the cytolytic activities of reactive immune cells. The outcome of different contributions of all these complex mechanisms under variable inflammatory conditions, the diversity of immune interactions between this constellation of cells conduct the evolution of the immune reaction. In this review, we summarize research characterizing the growing diversity of immunorregulatory cells subsets in the control of autoimmunity in rodents and humans. Here, we attempt to integrate the current experimental evidence on the major suppressive pathways of immunorregulation. 

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Immunoregulatory Cells and Mechanisms of Immune Response, pp. 79-97