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Regulatory T Cells and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Implication of the Regulatory T Lymphocytes in the Control of the Immune Response, pp. 137-168 $100.00
Authors:  (Nadira Delhem, Céline Miroux, Thibaut Vausselin, Laboratoire d’Immunopathologie des Cancers Viro-Induits, Institut de Biologie de Lille, Lille, France)
Abstract:
Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and also the third most common cause of cancer-related death. HCC arises most frequently in males with cirrhosis, which is most often a consequence of chronic hepatitis infection (HBV and HCV) or alcohol abuse. To date, the only effective approaches for patients with HCC are resection or liver transplantation.
Immunological mechanisms are important in the surveillance of malignancy and control of tumor progression. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TILs) have been described in HCC, and extensive infiltration has been associated with reduced tumor recurrence following resection. However continued tumor-growth, despite the presence of a lymphocytic infiltration, including tumor-specific T cells within and surrounding tumors, suggests a failure of immune control. Although, many mechanisms have been proposed for this attenuated immune response, it becomes evident that direct suppression of effector cells, supported by regulatory T cells could play a pivotal role in the suppression of immune response to tumors. Initially described in context of immune disorders such as inflammatory autoimmune pathologies, regulatory T lymphocytes are characterized by their capacity to inhibit T helper response. To date, several regulatory T cells are described, however CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and Tr1 sub-populations remain best characterized.
Currently, there is no evidence for direct implication of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in the malignancy and control of HCC progress. However, recent studies showed that both regulatory T cells subpopulations and particularly Tr1 have been implicated in the modulation of the immune response during HCV chronic infection, supporting HCC progress. 


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Regulatory T Cells and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Implication of the Regulatory T Lymphocytes in the Control of the Immune Response, pp. 137-168