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01.Nuclear Energy Safety: Comparative Assessments of Radiological Impacts on the Public from the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Cycle in the U.S.;pp. 1-54
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Towards the Harmonization of Research Reactor Safety Codes;pp. 137-170 $100.00
Authors:  (T. Hamidouche, E.K. Si-Ahmed, A. Bousbia-Salah, Division de l'Environnement, de la Sûreté et des Déchets Radioactifs, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire d'Alger (CRNA), Alger, Algérie)
Nuclear research reactors have been of great support in the development of nuclear
science and technology. Over the past fifty years, research reactors have been progressing
through a variety of types and tasks including materials research with neutron scattering
and diffraction, materials characterization with activation analysis and radiography,
isotope production, irradiation testing, training, as well as services as centers of
excellence in science and technology. Nowadays, trends to an extensive utilization for
commercial purposes as radioisotope productions and material transmutation are
observed. A survey shows that more than 50% of currently operating research reactors
have been operating for more than 30 years. This fact has, consequently, increased the
attention towards their safety issues by Regulatory bodies and the International Atomic
Energy Agency. In this order, safety reassessment and verification are required under
several situations such as: power upgrading, fuel changes, core reload, etc…
Safety analysis and optimization of the associated safety margins, without reducing
the safety level of the installation, need new methods and robust computing tools.
According to the International Atomic Energy Agency Safety Guides lines, a basic
approach to perform safety analysis of nuclear research reactors includes the use of
deterministic and probabilistic methods. In order to verify that the established acceptance
criteria are fulfilled (radiological, performance, integrity criteria) throughout the facility
lifetime, demonstrations are usually performed using deterministic methods based on the
use of validated computer program or codes for the simulation of the consequences of
any identified initiating events. These computer codes are in general of two types:
conservative and Best Estimate codes. 

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Towards the Harmonization of Research Reactor Safety Codes;pp. 137-170