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01.Nuclear Energy Safety: Comparative Assessments of Radiological Impacts on the Public from the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Cycle in the U.S.;pp. 1-54
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Application of Membrane Reactors to Distributed Cogenerative Systems;pp. 331-348 $100.00
Authors:  (Gaetano Iaquaniello, Paolo Ciambelli, Vincenzo Palma, Emma Palo, Technip KTI, Roma, Italy, and others)
In cogenerative (CHP) systems both electrical and thermal energy are generated
simultaneously, thus achieving an higher overall efficiency. Typically, CHP plants are
large-size centralized units; however a new trend is towards distributed CHP which
means that the energy production unit is situated closer to energy consumers with a
substantial reduction in the plant size. On the other hand, membrane reactors are
chemical devices in which the chemical reaction is coupled with the separation of one of
the end products. By this way, it is possible to shift the reaction to the right side and
consequently the conversion rate or final product yield has been enhanced. Membrane
reactors could play a key role in endothermic reactions since the equilibrium shift will
provide for a higher reactant conversion at lower temperature thus enabling the location
of the membrane reactor downstream of a gas turbine. It is important to note that in the
presence of a membrane, the reactor’s performances are even more strictly dependent on
the presence of a specific catalytic system, that must be re-formulated or optimised in
order to assure the best activity and selectivity in the new operating conditions. In
particular, the change in the catalysts preparation may be relevant to the chemical
formulation, for what concern the active species and the presence of specific promoters,
and to the catalyst carrier, in order to realize the more effective three-dimensional
structure, allowing the optimal membrane arrangement inside the reactor. This innovative
application is discussed in this chapter, also from an economic point of view, focusing
attention on two particular reactions of great interest in the petrochemical industry:
natural gas steam reforming and alkanes dehydrogenation. 

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Application of Membrane Reactors to Distributed Cogenerative Systems;pp. 331-348