Reprogrammed Glucose Metabolic Pathways of Inhibitor-Tolerant Yeast, pp. 159-186
Authors: (Z. Lewis Liu, Menggen Ma, Michael A. Cotta, Bioenergy Research, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Peoria, Illinois)
Abstract: Representative inhibitory compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural generated from lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment inhibit yeast growth and interfere with the subsequent ethanol fermentation. Evolutionary engineering under laboratory settings is a powerful tool that can be used to generate valuable strains and knowledge for inverse metabolic engineering for strain improvement. An inhibitor-tolerant ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae developed via evolutionary engineering underwent a genomic adaptation with global integrations for acquired tolerant functions while producing ethanol. Gene expression data provide informative phenotypes and significant insight into molecular mechanisms of the tolerance in yeast. Unification of gene expression data analysis is urgently needed to efficiently utilize the massive amount of data resource from individual research efforts as well as for the expression community in general. A rigorously tested and validated pathway-based real time qRT-PCR array assay applying robust mRNA reference and a master equation provide reliable means for reproducible and comparable expression data analysis. Advances in enhanced expression technology has led to discoveries of new gene functions and interactions to form hypothesis and construct reprogrammed pathways for the tolerant yeast in response to the inhibitor stress. Enriched genetic makeup, continued enhanced expression of genes in maintaining energy and redox balance, and the reprogrammed glucose metabolic pathways globally enable the yeast tolerance. Findings of recent research aid understanding of molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance and guide metabolic engineering efforts for future robust strain development to support biofuels industry.
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