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Exercise & Nutrition: Implications for Leg Muscle Growth in Humans, pp. 63-86 $100.00
Authors:  (Jared M. Dickinson, Blake B. Rasmussen, Sealy Center on Aging, Center for Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas)
Abstract:
Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that undergoes adaptive remodeling in
response to a variety of stimuli. The ability of skeletal muscle to adapt is ultimately
governed by the interplay between protein synthesis and protein breakdown and
advances in the use of stable isotope tracers to monitor changes in muscle protein
metabolism have provided a means to gain important insight into the adaptive state of
skeletal muscle. Specifically, two key anabolic stimuli, resistance exercise and nutrition,
have been shown to increase leg muscle protein synthesis and therefore have been
suggested as potential therapies for human skeletal muscle. In this chapter, we discuss
the human-based scientific literature as it pertains to the independent and combined
effects of acute resistance exercise and nutritional interventions on leg muscle protein
synthesis. Further, while the cellular mechanisms regulating muscle protein synthesis
have yet to be fully resolved, we highlight recent human investigations that have
demonstrated a key role for the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling
pathway in regulating muscle protein synthesis following both acute resistance exercise
and nutrition, primarily in the form of essential amino acids. We propose that ingesting
essential amino acids shortly after completing a bout of resistance exercise promotes
greater increases in leg muscle protein synthesis compared to that elicited independently
by each stimulus. In addition, it is clear that the mTOR signaling pathway plays a vital
role in this synergist anabolic effect. We suggest that when performed chronically, the
use of resistance exercise coupled with appropriate nutritional strategies may be
beneficial to overcome the deleterious effects associated with conditions of muscle
wasting and decreased muscle function such as aging, injury, and disease. 


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Exercise & Nutrition: Implications for Leg Muscle Growth in Humans, pp. 63-86